Mod 4: Lecture 4 - Nasal and Oral Cavities Flashcards Preview

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Above and Below the nasal cavity

- Above the nasal cavity: anterior cranial fossa
---- perforated cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone
- Below the nasal cavity: oral cavity
---- hard palate forms a common partition separating the oral cavity below from the nasal cavity above


Lateral to the Nasal cavity

- Lateral to the upper half of the lateral wall of the nasal cavity: ethmoidal air sinus
---- lateral to the sinus is the medial wall of the orbit
- Lateral to the lower half of the lateral wall is the maxillary air sinus


Posterior to the nasal cavity

- continuous posteriorly with the nasopharynx
--- where the post nasal drip goes


Roof of the nasal cavity

- nasal cartilages
---- seen best in anterior view
- nasal bones
- nasal spine of the frontal bone
- cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone
- anterior and inferior aspects of the body of the sphenoid bone


Floor of the nasal cavity

- palatine processes of the maxilla
- horizontal plates of the palatine bone


Medial Wall of the nasal cavity

- formed by the nasal septum
---- separates the nose into two nostrils
- components of the nasal septum:
---- septal cartilage: why you can break your nose and it's no big deal
---- perpendicular (vertical) plate of ethmoid bone
- vomer


Lateral Wall of the Nasal cavity

- skeletal components:
---- maxilla
---- ethmoid bone: which provides the superior and middle conchae
---- inferior conchae
- other contributors:
---- medial pterygoid plate of the sphenoid bone
---- nasal bone
---- lacrimal bone
---- palatine bone


Nasal Conchae

- superior, middle, and inferior conchae
- divide the nasal cavity into four passages
---- sphenoethmoidal recess: above the superior conchae
---- superior meatus: between the superior and middle conchae
---- middle meatus: between the middle and inferior conchae
---- inferior meatus: below the inferior conchae


Clinical Correlation: Nasogastric (NG) tube

- the nasal cavity is continuous with the nasopharynx which is continuous with the esophagus
- NG tube is passed from the nasal cavity to the stomach


Paranasal Sinuses

- air filled extensions of the respiratory part of the nasal cavity
---- sinus pain under the eyes
---- look like honeycomb in the bones
- go into the following cranial bones:
---- frontal
---- ethmoid
---- sphenoid
---- maxilla


Frontal Sinuses

- between the outer and inner tables of the frontal bone
- posterior to the superciliary arches and the root of the nose
- directly above the bridge of the nose
---- sinus pain between the eyes
- the most anterior of the paranasal sinuses


Ethmoidal Air Cells

- all the little honeycomb parts of the paranasal sinuses that are posterior to the frontal sinus
- small invaginations of the middle and superior nasal meatus into the ethmoid bone


Sphenoidal Sinuses

- located in the body of the sphenoid and may extend into the wings of this bone
- unevenly divided and separated by a bony septum
- posterior to the honeycomb sinuses
---- the most posterior of the paranasal sinuses
- near the ear - why your ears hurt when you have sinus infections


Maxillary Sinuses

- largest of the paranasal sinuses
- occupy bodies of the maxillae
- communicate with the middle nasal meatus
- medial wall of the maxillary sinus forms the inferior part of the lateral wall of the nasal cavity
- roof of the maxillary sinus is formed by the floor of the orbit
---- why you feel like your eyes are going to pop out of your head
- floor of the maxillary sinus is formed by the alveolar part of the maxilla of the oral cavity
---- why your teeth hurt when you have a sinus infection


Oral Regions

- Oral Vestibule
- Oral Cavity Proper: space between upper and lower dental arches
---- what you think of as the mouth


Oral Vestibule

- space between teeth and mucosal lining of the lips and cheeks
---- labial and buccal mucosa
---- where the squirrel holds their nuts
- controlled by muscles of facial expression
---- these muscles are innervated by facial nerve (CN VII)
---- buccinator



- thin, flat, rectangular muscle
- attaches laterally to the alveolar processes of the maxillae and mandible, opposite the molar teeth
- attaches to the pterygomandibular raphe
---- a tendinous thickening of the buccopharyngeal fascia (deep fascia of the neck)
- occupies a deeper more medially located plane than the other facial muscles
---- passing deep to the mandible so that it is more closely related to the buccal mucosa than skin of the face
- active in smiling, keeps the cheek taut
---- thereby preventing the cheek from folding and being injured during chewing


Salivary Gland Associated with Oral Vestibule

- Parotid Gland
---- duct opens in the oral vestibule opposite the crown of the second molar
---- way in the back of the mouth, in between the cheek and teeth



- forms the roof of the oral cavity proper and floor of nasal cavity
- two distinct parts:
---- hard palate
---- soft palate


Hard palate

- forms rigid surface for food during chewing
- formed from 2 bones of skull
---- horizontal plate of palatine bone (posterior 1/3)
---- palatine process of maxilla (anterior 2/3)


Soft Palate

- rises as a reflex to close off nasopharynx during swallowing
---- doesnt work when milk comes out your nose
- sides are attached to pharyngeal walls



- aggregates of lymphoid tissue
- palatine: bilateral, located at boundary of oral cavity and pharynx
- pharyngeal: single, roof of nasal pharynx
- lingual: dorsal surface of posterior tongue



- Functions:
---- mastication
----- taste
----- deglutition (swallowing)
---- articulation (speech)
---- oral cleansing
- has a dorsal and ventral (sublingual) surface
- composed of intrinsic and extrinsic muscles


Dorsal Surface of the Tongue

- Sulcus Terminalis
- Circumvallate Papillae
- Filiform and Fungiform Papillae


Sulcus Terminalis

- dorsal surface of tongue
- v shaped groove that divides anterior 2/3 from the posterior 1/3 of tongue
---- behind the super bumpy part of tongue in the back of the mouth, too far back to feel


Circumvallate Papillae

- dorsal surface of tongue
- 8-10 rows of structures containing taste buds
- super bumpy part of tongue in the back of the mouth


Filiform and Fungiform Papillae

- dorsal surface of tongue
- projections on the surface of the tongue
- in the anterior 2/3 where you can easily see them
- fungiform papillae contain taste buds
- filiform papillae direct food


Sublingual Surface of Tongue

- Lingual Frenulum
---- a midline fold of mucous membrane running from the lingual gingiva (gums) behind the mandibular central incisors (bottom front teeth)
- Sublingual Papilla and opening of submandibular duct
---- the bump at the bottom of the frenulum


Floor of Mouth

- a muscular diaphragm
- two cord-like geniohyoid muscles


Muscular Diaphragm on Floor of mouth

- fills the u-shaped gap between the sides and body of the mandible
---- the space where the underside of your chin is
- composed of paired mylohyoid muscles
---- attachments: mylohyoid line of mandible to median raphe of hyoid bone
---- innervation: nerve to mylohyoid from IAN