Mod 7 Hazardous Materials, Multiple-Casualty Incidents, and Incident Management Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Mod 7 Hazardous Materials, Multiple-Casualty Incidents, and Incident Management Deck (28):

Hazardous material

-Any substance or material in a form that poses an unreasonable risk to health, safety, and property when transported in commerce or kept in storage at a warehouse, port, depot or railroad facility.


The four levels of training that the regulations identify

-First responder awareness is where rescuers are likely to witness or discover hazardous substance release
-First responder operations is for those that initially respond to releases or potential releases of hazardous materials to protect people, property, and the environment
-Hazardous material technician is for rescuers who actually plug, patch, or stop the release of a hazardous material
-Hazardous materials specialist for rescuer who is expected to have advanced knowledge and skills and to command and support activities at the incident site.


Control the scene

-Establish safe zone: same level as and upwind from the incident site
-Call for the help you will need: firefighters, special rescue personnel, local or state hazmat experts, and law enforcement for crowd control.
-Implement agencies incident management system. Establish command and maintain role until relieved.
-Prevent the situation from getting worse. Evacuate people, establish perimeter.
-While help is on the way establish control zones


Hot zone

-The area of contamination or area of danger


Warm zone

-Area where patients will be decontaminated


Cold zone

-Equipment and other emergency rescuers to include myself should be staged.


Ways of obtaining information safely

-Use binoculars to look for identifying signs, labels, or placards from a safe distance.
-Do not approach scene to obtain this information
-Search for placards. Diamond shaped placards used in the transportation of dangerous good not only show hazard class, such as explosives, flammable gas, and poisons.
-Look for labels such as what is found on the beck of a truck carrying flammable liquids.
- Check invoices, bills of lading (trucks), and shipping manifests (trains)
-Review safety data sheets
-Interview workers or others leaving the hot zone.


Where to obtain information/advice on what initial actions should be taken at the scene of hazardous material

-Emergency response guidebook
-Chemical transportation emergency center (CHEMTREC)
-Current list of state and federal radiation authorities
-Regional poison control centers


The characteristics of a rehab center

-Located in the cold zone
-Protected from weather
-Large enough to accommodate multiple rescue crews
-Easily accessible to EMS units
-Free from exhaust fumes
-Allows for rapid reentry into the emergency operation



-A chemical and/or physical process that reduces or prevents the spread of contamination from persons or equipment; the removal of hazardous substances from employees and their equipment to the extent necessary to preclude forseeable health effects


Important points for treating and transporting hazmat patients

-Field decontamination patients are not fully clean. Chemicals may settle in patients hair, groin armpits ect.
-PPE is needed to prevent secondary contamination of rescuers.
-Protect vehicles from contamination. During decon process they are soaked in water. Water could runoff and could contaminate the vehicle
-Consider used equipment as disposable. For example spine boards, stethoscopes, ect. may not be decontaminated and may need to be disposed.
-Structural firefighting clothing is not designed or recommended for use when working in hazardous material environments.


The four types of patients likely to be encountered by EMT's

-Uninjured and not contaminated
-Injured and not contaminated
-Uninjured and contaminated
-Injured and contaminated


If confronted with contaminated patients prior to the arrival of the hazmat team

-Take precautions appropriate to the substance
-Follow the first aid measures
-Manage the patients critical needs. Do not forget to manage the ABC's
-If treatment calls for irrigation with water, remember that water only dilutes most substances. If cannot neutralize remove clothing and irrigate body.
-After treating the patient, decontaminate yourself. Clothing may need to be disposed of.


Phases of decontamination

-Gross decontamination is the removal or chemical alteration of the majority of the contaminant.
-Secondary contamination is the alteration or removal of most of the residual product contamination. It provides a more thorough decontamination than the gross effort.


Mechanisms of decontamination

-Emulsification is the production of unmixable/insoluble materials using an emulsifying agent such as soap or detergent.
-Chemical reaction is a process that neutralizes, degrades, or otherwise chemically alters the contaminate. not recommended for use on living tissue
-Disinfection is the process that removes the biological contamination hazards as the disinfectant destroys microorganisms and their toxins
-Dilution is the process that simply reduces the concentration of the contaminant.
-Absorption and adsorption is the penetration of a liquid or gas into another substance.
-Removal is the physical process of removing contaminants by pressure or vacuum.
-Disposal is the aseptic removal of a contaminated object from a host, after which the object is disposed of


Decontamination procedures

-Determine appropriate level of protective equipment based on materials and associated hazards
-Properly wear and operate in PPE
-Establish operating time log
-Set up and operate the decontamination line
-Prioritize the decontamination of patients according to triage system
-Perform triage in PPE
-Be able to communicate while in PPE


Decontamination for patients wearing PPE

-Rinse, starting at head and working down
-Scrub the suit with a brush, starting at the head and working down. Pay special attention to heavily contaminated areas
-Rinse again starting at head and working down
-Assist the responder in removing the PPE
-Contain the runoff of hazardous wastewater.


Decontamination for patients not wearing PPE

-Have patient remove any materials trapping materials to skin.
-Double bag their clothing for disposal or decontamination later
-Patient should receive a a 2 to 5 min water rinse.
-Solids or particulate contaminants should brushed off lightly.
-Rinsing should start at head to reduce spreading to eyes nose or mouth.


Multiple casualty incident

-Any medical or trauma incident involving multiple patients
-Most common is an automobile crash involving 3 or more patients.


Disaster plan

-A predefined set of instructions that tells a community's various emergency responders what to do in specific emergencies.


List of what the disaster plan should be

-Written to address the events that are conceivable for a particular location
-Well publicized


National incident management system

-The management system used by federal, state, and local governments to manage emergencies in the U.S.


Incident command system

-A subset of the NIMS designed specifically for management of multiple casualty incidents



-The first on scene to establish order and initiate the incident command system


Single incident command

-Command organization in which a single agency controls all resources and operations
-Often used at fire and rescue incidents


Unified command

-Command organization in which several agencies work independently but cooperatively


Incident command

-The person or persons who assume overall direction of a large scale incident
-Best way to manage resources in most communities


Scene size up

-Arrive at the scene and establish incident command
-Do a quick walk through of the scene and assess number of patients, hazards, and degree of entrapment
-Get as calm and composed as possible to radio an initial scene report and call for additional resources.