Flashcards in MoD Conditions Deck (21):
What is lobar pneumonia and what causes it?
It is pneumonia affecting a continuous area of a lobe of the lung.
What are the four stages of lobar pneumonia?
1. Congestion- alveolar vessels become congested as exudate moves out into alveolar space.
2. Red hepatisation- a red, liver-like appearance of the lung due to lots of exudation, neutrophils and red cells.
3. Grey hepatisation- red cells disintegrate
4. Resolution- exudate is cleared, leaving the normal structure.
What is acute appendicitis and what causes it?
It is inflammation of the appendix that presents with pain in the lower right quadrant of the abdomen.
Caused by bacterial infection, obstruction of the appendix, or swelling and inflammation.
What is bacterial meningitis and what causes it?
It is a bacterial infection of the meninges that surround the brain and spinal cord, that causes it to become inflamed.
Caused by streptococcus pneumonaie, Neissarie meningitides, group B strep.
What is ascending cholanginitis and what causes it?
It is an inflammatory disease of the gallbladder that presents with pain in the upper right quadrant of the abdomen.
Caused by obstruction of the common bile duct by gallstones. Infection of the bile caused by E.coli
What is a liver abscess liable to?
What is hereditary angio-oedema and what inheritance pattern does it have?
It is a swelling of the dermis of the skin caused by increased vessel permeability.
What is alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency and what inheritance pattern does it have?
It is a deficiency in alpha-1-antitrypsin that normally inhibits enzyme released by neutrophils that destroy parenchymal tissue.
What is chronic granulomatous disease and what inheritance pattern does it have? How does it present?
An inability of phagocytes to kill engulfed bacteria and fungi due to an enzyme defect (NADPH Oxidase).
Presents as skin infections, skin granulomas etc.
sex linked recessive
What is TB caused by and what is a TB granuloma made up of?
It is caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis
A TB granuloma contains macrophages, giant Langhans cells, caseous necrosis, epithelioids and lymphocytes
What is rheumatoid arthritis?
It is an autoimmune disease characterised by inflammation and of the synovium. Chronic inflammation causes destruction of the joints.
What is ulcerative colitis and what are the main two symptoms?
It is an inflammatory bowel disease of the superficial colon.
Diarrhoea, and bleeding caused by ulcer formation.
What is Crohn's disease and what are two common features?
It is an inflammatory bowel disease that is transmural of the digestive system anywhere between the mouth and anus.
Strictures and fistulae.
What is chronic cholecystitis?
It is fibrosis of the gallbladder wall due to recurrent gallstones which obstruct the gallbladder, causing repeated acute inflammation of the gallbladder.
What is chronic gastritis? What are the acute and chronic forms caused by?
Inflammation and ulceration of the stomach lining.
Acute is caused by alcohol and drugs,
Chronic is caused by helicobacter pylori.
What is liver cirrhosis? What causes it?
It is chronic inflammation with fibrosis.
Caused by drugs, alcohol, fatty liver disease, toxins, infection with Hep A/B
What is thrombocytopenia? What are the consequences?
A disease in which the platelet count is way below the reference range.
Bleeding from gums, nose bleeds, heavier periods and breakthrough bleeding.
What is thrombophilia? What does it predispose an individual to?
It is an increased tendency of blood to clot.
What is haemophilia A? What are the consequences?
An X linked recessive disease that affects mostly boys. It is a deficiency in clotting factor 8 and therefore means that there is abnormal Haemorrhaging into joints, urinary tract and redo peritoneum. Causes pain.
What is haemophilia B? What are the consequences?
It is an X linked recessive disease that is less common and often less severe than haemophilia A. It is a deficiency in clotting factor 9 and has similar consequences to A.