Flashcards in Module 2 Deck (182)
patterns of behaviour or personality traits that are TYPICAL or that conform to some standard of proper and ACCEPTABLE ways of behaving and being…
Health vs Illness
HEALTH - State of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity
ILLNESS - Reverse of health
IMPORTANCE of DIFFERENTIATING HEALTH from ILLNESS
- Important step in the development of psychiatric nomenclature
- Important in defining the domain of psychiatry
- Important in understanding the epistemology of psychiatric diagnosis
According to DSM IV-TR:
- A behavioral/ psychological syndrome associated with: Distress
Disability (impairment in functioning)
- Must NOT be an expected and culturally sanctioned response to a particular event (e.g. loss of a loved one)
Successful performance of mental functions (i.e. thought, mood, behaviour) that results in:
- Productive activities
- Fulfilling relationships with others
- Ability to adopt to changes
- Cope with adversities
PERSEPECTIVES of HEALTH and ILLNESS
- Absence-of-pathology perspective
- Utopia perspective
- Statistical perspective
- Systems perspective
- Pragmatic perspective
- Absence of symptoms, physical signs and/or laboratory abnormalities
- Free of undue pain, discomfort, disability, distress, disadvantage and other features of disorder
Biological perspective emphasizes this model
ABSENCE-of-PATHOLOGY PERSPECTIVE: Goal of treatment
- To free the person from the presence of the grossly observable symptoms
- To help person attain reasonable functioning
LIMITATIONS of the ABSENCE-of-PATHOLOGY PERSPECTIVE
- A biological etiology or pathology may not always be present or determinable in all cases of mental disorders.
- The standard or optimal pattern of neurochemical structure and function is ambiguous and arbitrary.
- Many people who are ill do not complain or even suffer, because they experience no symptoms, they accept their incapacity, or they find some benefit from it.
Health - State of ideal functioning
Emphasized in humanistic and psychoanalytic models of treatment
UTOPIA PERSPECTIVE: Goal of treatment
- To help person actualize or reach his/her full potential
- To help person optimize functioning in some ideal manner
LIMITATION of the UTOPIA PERSPECTIVE
- Obtained rarely and by a few persons
- Sigmund Freud: mental health is an “ideal fiction”
Health - Average level of functioning
- Psychometric models of psychopathology in psychology
- Medical diagnosis and classifications such as hypertension
LIMITATION of the STATISTICAL PERSPECTIVE
- Average is not the same as healthy.
- E.g., in the general population, the mean weight or eyesight is actually unhealthy
Health - A condition that is not deemed sufficiently troublesome to seek treatment for is not pathological
The evaluation that a condition is a disorder is relative to the society and the citizens within that society
LIMITATION of the PRAGMATIC PERSPECTIVE
Defining mental disorders as those conditions treated by mental health professionals may be self-serving & relative to the complaints and economics of the local patients and interests of the local clinicians.
Health - Functional interplay of interacting systems that operate and fluctuate in a relative adaptivity over time
Emphasizes multiple processes and levels of adaptation that need to be studied longitudinally
SYSTEMS PERSPECTIVE: Levels of adaptation
OTHER CAVEATS in DEFINING MENTAL HEALTH
What is healthy may depend on geography, culture and historical moment.
- Punctuality is a virtue in some countries but not in others.
- Gen. George Patton’s competitive temperament was a psychological liability in time of peace but a virtue in two world wars.
OTHER CAVEATS in DEFINING MENTAL HEALTH 2
One must make clear whether one is discussing trait or state.
Who is physically healthier?
- An Olympic miler disabled by a simple but temporary ankle fracture?
- A type 1 diabetic with a temporary normal blood sugar level?
OTHER CAVEATS in DEFINING MENTAL HEALTH 3
One must appreciate the danger of “contamination by values”.
- What is mental health good for?
For self or the society? For fitting in or for creativity? For happiness or survival?
- Who should be the judge?
- Polarized, elongated cells capable of instantaneously, intracellular communication
- Transmission of information
Anatomy of Neuron
Dendrites: take input information into neuron
Cell body: cellular metabolism, incoming signal communicated
Axon: carries information away from cell bodies towards output terminals
3 Types of Glial Cells
2. Oligondendrocytes-CNS/ Schwann Cells-PNS
- Most numerous
- Nutrition of cells
- Deactivation of neurotransmitters
- Integration of blood cell barrier
Wrap their processes around axons resulting in-myelin sheaths that facilitate conduction
Oligondendrocytes-CNS/ Schwann Cells-PNS
- Derived from macrophages
- Removing cell debris
processes external stimuli into neuronal impulses and create an internal representation of the external world
enable people to manipulate the environment and to influence others’ behavior through communication