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1

- born in May 6, 1856 in Freiburg, Czechoslovakia
at 4, moved to Vienna
- after med school, specialized in Neurology in Paris Jean-Martin Charcot
- taught in hypnosis by Leibault and Bernheim
- back in Vienna, began clinical work with hysterical patients
- 1887 - 1897 development of psychoanalysis
- Died in 1939 in London

SIGMUND FREUD

2

- anything that comes to mind initially or immediately

Free Association

3

Transference vs Countertransference

Transference: patient to therapist; people of the past that reminds you of the person in front of you

Countertransference: therapist to patient; the therapist sees a person from his or her past on the patient

4

- process by which patient’s recollection of circumstances at the time symptoms appeared has led those same symptoms to disappear

talking cure

5

- eruption of repressed thought / feeling when one word is substituted for another reveals an unacceptable unconscious wish
- evidence of role of unconscious in everyday life

Parapraxes

6

- vocational choice, selection of romantic partners, dreams, symptoms of psychiatric disorders - have meaning
- shaped by unconscious forces in dynamic relationship with one another, not randomly selected

Psychic determinism

7

- developmental successes / failures - central to evolution of adult characters and influential in pathogenesis of adult psychiatric disorder
- factors include traumas, subtle and repetitive forms of interaction between children and parents, children and siblings

Past is Prologue

8

Topographical Model of the Mind

Conscious
Preconscious
Unconcious

9

Structural Theory of the Mind

1. Id - me only; present since birth
2. Ego - me and others; arises only 2-3 months after birth
3. Superego

10

Structural Theory of the Mind: Ego

1. Conscious and Preconscious functions
- Logical and abstract thinking and verbal expression
2. Unconscious domain - Defense Mechanisms
3. Executive organ of the psyche - controls motility, perception; contact with reality; the delay and modulation of drive expression

11

Process: Primary Process ( wishing, fantasizing: the desire to create something that would satisfy some strong need going inside you at the time) momentarily pleasurable experiences
Reflex Action
Development: Innate; Biological Component
Principle: Pleasure principle
Conflict: Irrational (if it feels good do it)

Id

12

Process:
Secondary Process (thinking) - in charge of all our higher mental process: Thinking, reasoning, problem solving, judgement, perception, learning
Non reflexive behavior: voluntary movement and coordination, anything we chose to do
Sense of identity and environment
Use of manipulation of Ego Defense Mechanisms

Development: Develops between birth and 2 weeks
Principle: Reality principle
Conflict: Rational (job is to try to maintain stability)

Ego

13

Process: Socialization (end product of socialization)
Development: Entirely learned; demands perfection; social/moral component
Principle: Morality Principle
Conflict: Irrational (demands perfection)

Super Ego

14

FREUD’S DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES
Age: 0-18 months
Definition: centered in oral zone
Description: Oral sensations –> thirst, hunger, touch by
nipple
Oral tension –> oral gratification
ORAL TRIAD: wish to EAT, SLEEP, RELAX
Objectives: to establish trusting dependence on nursing and sustaining objects

ORAL STAGE

15

Oral Stage: Pathologic and Character Traits

Pathologic Traits (adult fixation): excessive oral gratification/deprivation
- optimism, narcissism, pessimism,
- dependence, demandingness

Character Traits: capacities to give and receive from others
w/o excessive dependence, capacity to rely on others with
sense of trust

16

Age: 1-3 years
 Definition: maturation of sphincter control
Description: passivity => activity
anal control and toilet training => increase in ambivalence;
struggle of independence
Objectives: to achieve autonomy and independence without shame/self-doubt from loss of control

Anal Stage

17

Anal Stage: Pathologic and Character Traits

Pathologic Traits: orderliness, stubbornness, frugality,
ambivalence, messiness, rage, defiance
Character Traits: personal autonomy, independence and
initiative w/o guilt, lack of ambivalence, capacity for willing
cooperation

18

Age: 3-5 years
Definition: sexual interest; stimulation/excitement of genitals
Description: penis – organ of interest; unconscious fantasies
of sexual involvement with opposite sex parent
Objectives: to integrate residues of previous stages into
genital-sexual orientation

Phallic Stage

19

Phallic Stage: Pathologic and Character Traits

Pathologic Traits:
- castration anxiety for males
- penis envy for females
- patterns of identity

Character Traits:
- sense of sexual identity, regulation of
drive impulses
- superego as source of regulation
- based on identification with parental figures

20

Age: 5-6 until 11-13 years
Definition: inactivity of sexual drive
Description: homosexual affliations, sublimation into
learning, play activities, exploring environment, skills
development
Objectives: to further integrate oedipal identities; consolidate sex role identity

Latency Stage

21

Latency Stage: Pathologic and Character Traits

Pathologic Traits: lack of control, failure to sublimate
energies in learning; excess in skill development, premature closing of personality development

Character Traits: establish decisive pattern of adaptive
functioning, capacity for mastery of objects with a sense of
initiative without sense of inferiority

22

Age: 11-18 years
Definition: intensification of drives
Description: reopening of conflicts of previous stages,
regression in personality organization
Objectives:
- to separate from dependence/attachment to parents
- to establish mature, non-incestuous object relations, to
achieve mature sense of personal identity, to integrate adult
roles/function

Genital Stage

23

Genital Stage: Pathologic and Character Traits

Pathologic Traits: previous unsuccessful resolution/fixation
=> defect of adult personality

Character Traits: capacity for full and satisfying genital
potency, self-integration, self-identity

24

Ages: 0-1
Focus of Libido: Mouth, Tongue, Lips
Major Development: Weaning off of breast feeding or formula
Adult Fixation Example: Overeating, smoking

Oral

25

Ages: 1-3
Focus of Libido: Anus
Major Development: Toilet training
Adult Fixation Example: Orderliness, Messiness

Anal

26

Ages: 3-6
Focus of Libido: Genitals
Major Development: Resolving Oedipus/Electra Complex
Adult Fixation Example: Deviancy; Sexual Dysfunction

Phallic

27

Ages: 6-12
Focus of Libido: None
Major Development: Developing Defense Mechanisms
Adult Fixation Example: None

Latency

28

Ages: 12+
Focus of Libido: Genitals
Major Development: Reaching Full Sexual Maturity
Adult Fixation Example: If all stages were successfully completed then the person should be sexually matured and mentally healthy

Genital

29

- born in June 15, 1902 in Germany
- parents separated before he was born
- grew up with mother and stepfather
- schooled in Montessori method of education
- immigrated to US in 1933
- Died in 1994

Erik Erikson

30

- did anthropological work with Indians
- “Childhood and Society” published in 1950
- believed that human personality is determined by both childhood and adult experiences
- formulated theory of human development covering entire span of life cycle : infancy -> old age

Erik Erikson