Flashcards in Module 7 Final Deck (157):
_____ is/are painful lesions appearing in the oral cavity that is/are sometimes referred to as canker sore(s).
Usually a precipitation factor for cancer; appears as a white, leathery patch that cannot be identified as any other white lesion:
Defined as the study of diseases that occurs in the oral cavity:
_____ can be localized at a wound site, or can manifest in a person's muscles or joints.
A _______ helps to bring about the inflammatory process by increasing the blood flow to the area involved, which in turn causes redness and heat.
Any abnormal tissue appearing in the mouth:
Which instrument can be used to measure oral lesions?
Using a VELscope, any suspicious tissue in the oral cavity will appear:
A biopsy is sent to the laboratory to be examined by the _____.
A common type of oral lesion found in the oral cavity that extends below the surface of the oral mucosa:
An example of a lesion that extends below the mucosal surfaces:
A periapical abscess forms at the _____ of a tooth.
A bullae is a fluid-filled blister that is more than _____ in diameter.
A lesion that ranges in size from a pinhead to less than one-half inch in diameter is called a:
A lesion that resembles a blister but is filled with blood caused by a ruptured blood vessel:
A small lump of tissue, either firm or soft, and more than one-quarter inch in diameter:
Repeated injury to an area in the oral cavity can result in a lesion called:
A chronic infection caused by an aerobic bacterium:
Effective treatment for tuberculosis has been available since the:
_____ is a form of herpes simplex virus type I (HSV I), which affects the body above the waist.
_____ is extremely painful, and occurs as a crusting ulceration on the fingers or the hands.
A term used to describe a disease that is normally seen in children from 6 months to about age 6:
Herpes simplex virus ____ can appear in the oral cavity, but usually affects the body below the waist.
_____ are known as canker sores, and are common ulcerations that can recur in the oral cavity.
Occurs when radiation is received for treatment of head and neck cancers! and affects the blood vessels, bones! and salivary glands:
A term that means inflammation of the tongue:
A term used to describe any red patch of tissue in the oral cavity:
An inherited condition of the teeth in which there are defects in the formation of enamel:
When the enamel appears bluish in color or opalescent, this condition is called:
Abnormally small teeth usually see in Down syndrome patients:
Anaerobic bacteria rely on oxygen in order to survive.
While he was working, one of Louis Pasteur's bacterial cultures became contaminated with a patch of mold, leading to the accidental discovery of penicillin.
A spore cell might lie dormant and survey for weeks, even years, through drought, heat, chemicals, and even radiation.
A community of microorganisms is called a biofilm, and is implicated in many infections and sometimes found in the oral cavity.
Bacteria are the smallest microorganisms and viruses are the largest.
_____ is the branch of science concerned with the study of living organisms too small to be seen with the naked eye.
____ became the first known scientist to study microorganisms.
Anton Van Leeuwenhoek
In _____, Louis Pasteur successfully showed that life can be generated only from existing life of the same species.
_____ was credited for developing the germ theory.
In what year did Alexander Fleming turn a ruined culture into one of the greatest medical advances in history?
The bubonic plague killed _____% of the population of Europe during the Middle Ages.
The major groups of microorganisms are algae, bacteria, fungi, Protozoa, rickettsiae, and _____.
______ are small, unicellular microorganisms.
The most common bacteria shapes are the rod-like bacilli, spheres, and:
What kind of bacteria is destroyed by contact with oxygen?
What bacteria have the ability to adjust to particular circumstances, and can live without oxygen?
What type of bacteria multiply well in dead tissue?
_____ is a term used to denote groups that include yeast, molds! and mushrooms.
Some fungal infections can become life threatening, especially in _____ people.
_____ is a type of fungus known as ringworm.
Herpes simplex _____ is transmitted through sexual contact.
HIV destroys what type of T cell?
The most common types of hepatitis is:
Hepatitis _____ is found in feces of those infected with HIV.
Botulism and tetanus produce toxins that attack the_____ system.
Botulism produces a toxin so potent that a single gram could kill _____ million people.
Dental plaque is also dental biofilm, which is a complex community of several varieties of bacteria that can reach a thickness of _____ cells on the surface of the teeth.
Bloodborne pathogens are organisms transferred through blood or body fluids that cause infectious disease.
The three main types of infections that can occur in the chain of infection are acute, chronic and opportunistic.
There are four stages of infection; incubation, prodromal, acute, and convalescent.
Droplet contamination can occur from the use of the HVE, even when used properly.
The dental assistant may decline to receive the hepatitis B vaccine
To assist in control of disease transmission from dental personnel to community, it is recommended that the dental professional change from her work clothes into street clothes before leaving the office
_____ transmission is a method where diseases are transmitted from splash or splatter to the mucosa, or non-intact skin
_____ immunity is sometimes called adaptive immunity, and is artificially acquired immunity from immunizations
Disease-causing microorganism are:
The basic microorganisms are:
All of the above
The common cold is an example of a/n:
Acute viral infection
_____ infections "hangs on," but the symptoms come and go.
The ______ is the body's defense against invasion of infectious organisms.
The hepatitis _____ series is recommended by CDC for all dental health care workers.
_____ provides infection control guidelines specifically for dental health care workers
Failure to follow _____ regulations can result in fines or closures
Which category of the exposure control plan is for individuals such as the accountant?
______ is/are procedures used to prevent the spread of infection from surfaces and instruments.
After the occurrence of an exposure incident, when should am evaluation of policies and the failure of the control methods be completed?
At the time the incident occur
All written policies on exposure incidents should be consistent with _____ regulations regarding exposure management.
State and federal
Which organization mandates specific work practices be in place to prevent exposures from occurring?
_____ disinfectant is a tuberculocidal that kills most but not all bacterial spores.
The universal technique for cleaning and disinfecting surface areas is the:
Spray, wipe, spray technique
______ is a poor surface disinfectant because it can take 10-90 minutes to disinfect.
A mask should be replaced
With every patient
Gross decay is decay that develops quickly and spreads rampantly throughout the mouth.
Dental caries is the most common chronic diseases in children.
Dried fruit is a great snack alternative in caries prevention.
The portion of the tooth that makes up the majority of the toothy structure:
The primary layer of biofilm is composed of a layer called:
Demineralization causes a loss of _____ from the hydroxyapatite crystallites in the enamel.
Calcium and phosphate
Arrested carious lesions are often ______ in color.
All of the above
Multiple carious lesions present in the mouth would be categorized as:
Which of the following electrolytes are found in saliva, and aid in the chemical protection process?
Phosphate and calcium
Which dental instrument is used to detect surface caries?
Radiographs are used to detect ______ caries.
______ is an antibacterial mouth rinse used to help prevent oral infections.
Which of the following is not a fermentable carbohydrate?
The caries risk text is most often utilized in:
Public dental programs
Which of the following would be considered the least cariogenic?
Dentin contains ______ amounts of calcium and _____ amounts of water as enamel.
______ is the name of the sticky, tooth-colored material composed almost completely of bacteria
Which of the following is not one of the he characteristics of pellicle?
Remineralization will occur when ______ are redeposited in the demineralized area
Calcium and phosphate
The type of caries most prevalent in the geriatric population is:
The type of caries found around the margins of an existing restoration is:
Indicator dyes are utilized to:
Which bacteria would be involved in the formation of an incipient carious lesion?
Which of the following is the correct order for hardness of the different tooth structures ?
Enamel, dentin, cementum, pulp
Which of the following is the correct order for plaque formation?
Pellicle, mutans streptococci, loctobacilli, other microorganisms
Meth-mouth closely resembles:
Baby bottle mouth caries
Saliva has a ______ capacity that reduces the potential for acid formation.
The most accepted means of caries detection is:
_____ can be utilized to identify dentinal caries.
OSHA stands for Occupational Safety and Hazard Association
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration promotes and enforces workplace standards designed to protect the health and safety of workers
PPE stands for personal protection equipment
Official standards set forth by governmental agencies such as licensing boards are:
One standard set forth by the OSHA is the Bloodborne Pathogens Standard. This standard is designed to:
Prevent disease transmission
Items such as sterilizers, biological and chemical indicators, ultrasonic cleaners, and dental units must be approved by the:
The national institute for Occupational Safety and Health is a component of:
Chemicals used in dentistry can be hazardous because they are highly reactive, toxic, carcinogenic, contaminated, combustible, or:
Chemical degradation can be caused by exposure to heat, cold, or light; storage of the chemical beyond it's expected shelf life; or:
Items such as paper towels, plastic cups, patient bibs, and disinfectant wipes are considered to be ______, which is _____.
General waste, unregulated
Human body fluids such as semen, vaginal secretions, cerebrospinal fluids amniotic fluids, and saliva in dental procedures are considered to be:
Standards are designed to:
Promote the use of safe procedures
The _____ studies the safety, efficacy and promotional claims for dental materials and products
ADA council on scientific affairs
Chemicals can enter the body through ingestion; contact with the skin or mucous membrane; and:
Pathological waste includes:
Extracted teeth or tissue
Which of the following states does not have a federally approved OSHA program?
Dental offices that fail to comply with safety regulations are subject to enforcement by such means as fines, license suspension, license revocation, and:
Should a patient be consistently exposed to naturally occurring bacteria, she could become
Resistant to bacteria
The level of microbes in water coming out of an unmodified dental unit is almost always:
Higher than in drinking water
Dental water line water quality was first initiated in:
The federal safe drinking water act deems _______ CFUs by year 2000.
What role does dental unit water line biofilm play in the microbial contamination of dental unit water?
Biofilm sheds bacteria into the water, causing increased levels of bacteria in the outgoing water
Bacteria benefit by capturing ________ from the water! which secondary bacteria begins to colonize.
The primary source of microorganisms in dental water lines is:
The city water supply
Dental personnel who are continuously exposed to bacterial aerosols through high-speed hand pieces and ultrasonic units have ______ levels of certain bacterial antibodies than does the general public.
Biofilm formation in dental unit water lines is dependent on the following characteristics of water flow:
Laminar and low rate flow, low volume use, and small diameter tubes
Standard precautions for dental treatment set by the ADA, CDC, and OSAP include:
Using an HVE, flushing lines 30 seconds between patients, and installing anti-retraction valves.
The bacteria within the dental unit water lines depend on ______ from the water for growth and reproduction.
In the dental office, the level of bacteria-contaminated water lines cannot be reduced by utilizing:
Brit water filters
A dental product that is categorized as being potentially combustible should not be stored near:
A blue diamond-shaped symbol on the NFPA labeling system denotes a ______ hazard.
When maintaining a Hazard Communication Program, employers must provide:
All of the above
The agency that regulates waste from the point of generation to the point of final disposal is:
OSHA seeks to protect _____, the FDA works to protect _____, and the EPA acts to protect ______.
Employees, general public, the environment
The agency responsible for making recommendations for the prevention of work-related injury and illnesses is:
Chemicals that contain infectious microorganisms and can spread disease are considered to be:
Biofilm is found in almost all places where moisture meets a suitable solid surface, and can contain many types of bacteria as well as fungi, algae, and Protozoa.
Monitoring of dental water lines can be accomplished only by sending water samples to an outside microbiology lab.
Heaters placed on dental units to allow for warm/hot water for patient comfort promote a more rapid growth of bacteria in the water lines.
A main concern of the bacteria in dental water lines is exposing patients to:
High concentrations of bacteria
The ADA recommends that dentists follow the infection control guidelines for biofilm reduction in dental unit water lines provided by the:
Methods to improve dental unit water quality include:
Improving the quality of the incoming water and controlling biofilm.
How often should the dental assistant replace dental unit water line filters that are installed to the unit?
Periodically, depending on the amount of biofilm in the line.
High speed handpiece, air/water syringe, and ultrasonic unit should all be flushed for______ seconds after each patient to purge all air and water.
The dental assistant can go to any dental manufacturer for education and _______ on the use and maintenance of their systems.