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Flashcards in Module 7 Final Deck (157):
0

_____ is/are painful lesions appearing in the oral cavity that is/are sometimes referred to as canker sore(s).

Aphthous ulcers

1

Usually a precipitation factor for cancer; appears as a white, leathery patch that cannot be identified as any other white lesion:

Leukoplakia

2

Defined as the study of diseases that occurs in the oral cavity:

Oral pathology

3

_____ can be localized at a wound site, or can manifest in a person's muscles or joints.

Tetanus

4

A _______ helps to bring about the inflammatory process by increasing the blood flow to the area involved, which in turn causes redness and heat.

Histamine

5

Any abnormal tissue appearing in the mouth:

Oral lesion

6

Which instrument can be used to measure oral lesions?

Periodontal probe

7

Using a VELscope, any suspicious tissue in the oral cavity will appear:

Dark

8

A biopsy is sent to the laboratory to be examined by the _____.

Pathologist

9

A common type of oral lesion found in the oral cavity that extends below the surface of the oral mucosa:

Ulcer

10

An example of a lesion that extends below the mucosal surfaces:

Cyst

11

A periapical abscess forms at the _____ of a tooth.

Apex

12

A bullae is a fluid-filled blister that is more than _____ in diameter.

One-half inch

13

A lesion that ranges in size from a pinhead to less than one-half inch in diameter is called a:

Papule

14

A lesion that resembles a blister but is filled with blood caused by a ruptured blood vessel:

Hematoma

15

A small lump of tissue, either firm or soft, and more than one-quarter inch in diameter:

Nodule

16

Repeated injury to an area in the oral cavity can result in a lesion called:

Granulomas

17

A chronic infection caused by an aerobic bacterium:

Actinomycosis

18

Effective treatment for tuberculosis has been available since the:

1940s

19

_____ is a form of herpes simplex virus type I (HSV I), which affects the body above the waist.

Herpes labialis

20

_____ is extremely painful, and occurs as a crusting ulceration on the fingers or the hands.

Herpetic whitlow

21

A term used to describe a disease that is normally seen in children from 6 months to about age 6:

Herpetic gingivostomatitis

22

Herpes simplex virus ____ can appear in the oral cavity, but usually affects the body below the waist.

Type II

23

_____ are known as canker sores, and are common ulcerations that can recur in the oral cavity.

Aphthous ulcers

24

Occurs when radiation is received for treatment of head and neck cancers! and affects the blood vessels, bones! and salivary glands:

Radiation mucositis

25

A term that means inflammation of the tongue:

Glossitis

26

A term used to describe any red patch of tissue in the oral cavity:

Erythoplakia

27

An inherited condition of the teeth in which there are defects in the formation of enamel:

Amelogenesis imperfecta

28

When the enamel appears bluish in color or opalescent, this condition is called:

Dentinogenesis imperfecta

29

Abnormally small teeth usually see in Down syndrome patients:

Microdontia

30

Anaerobic bacteria rely on oxygen in order to survive.

False

31

While he was working, one of Louis Pasteur's bacterial cultures became contaminated with a patch of mold, leading to the accidental discovery of penicillin.

False

32

A spore cell might lie dormant and survey for weeks, even years, through drought, heat, chemicals, and even radiation.

True

33

A community of microorganisms is called a biofilm, and is implicated in many infections and sometimes found in the oral cavity.

True

34

Bacteria are the smallest microorganisms and viruses are the largest.

False

35

_____ is the branch of science concerned with the study of living organisms too small to be seen with the naked eye.

Microbiology

36

____ became the first known scientist to study microorganisms.

Anton Van Leeuwenhoek

37

In _____, Louis Pasteur successfully showed that life can be generated only from existing life of the same species.

1864

38

_____ was credited for developing the germ theory.

Robert Koch

39

In what year did Alexander Fleming turn a ruined culture into one of the greatest medical advances in history?

1928

40

The bubonic plague killed _____% of the population of Europe during the Middle Ages.

33

41

The major groups of microorganisms are algae, bacteria, fungi, Protozoa, rickettsiae, and _____.

Viruses

42

______ are small, unicellular microorganisms.

Bacteria

43

The most common bacteria shapes are the rod-like bacilli, spheres, and:

Corkscrew

44

What kind of bacteria is destroyed by contact with oxygen?

Anaerobic

45

What bacteria have the ability to adjust to particular circumstances, and can live without oxygen?

Facultative

46

What type of bacteria multiply well in dead tissue?

Anaerobes

47

_____ is a term used to denote groups that include yeast, molds! and mushrooms.

Fungus

48

Some fungal infections can become life threatening, especially in _____ people.

Older

49

_____ is a type of fungus known as ringworm.

Tinea corporis

50

Herpes simplex _____ is transmitted through sexual contact.

II

51

HIV destroys what type of T cell?

CD4

52

The most common types of hepatitis is:

A,B,C

53

Hepatitis _____ is found in feces of those infected with HIV.

A

54

Botulism and tetanus produce toxins that attack the_____ system.

Nervous

55

Botulism produces a toxin so potent that a single gram could kill _____ million people.

15

56

Dental plaque is also dental biofilm, which is a complex community of several varieties of bacteria that can reach a thickness of _____ cells on the surface of the teeth.

300-500

57

Bloodborne pathogens are organisms transferred through blood or body fluids that cause infectious disease.

True

58

The three main types of infections that can occur in the chain of infection are acute, chronic and opportunistic.

False

59

There are four stages of infection; incubation, prodromal, acute, and convalescent.

True

60

Droplet contamination can occur from the use of the HVE, even when used properly.

True

61

The dental assistant may decline to receive the hepatitis B vaccine

True

62

To assist in control of disease transmission from dental personnel to community, it is recommended that the dental professional change from her work clothes into street clothes before leaving the office

True

63

_____ transmission is a method where diseases are transmitted from splash or splatter to the mucosa, or non-intact skin

Droplet

64

_____ immunity is sometimes called adaptive immunity, and is artificially acquired immunity from immunizations

Active

65

Disease-causing microorganism are:

Pathogens

66

The basic microorganisms are:

All of the above

67

The common cold is an example of a/n:

Acute viral infection

68

_____ infections "hangs on," but the symptoms come and go.

Latent

69

The ______ is the body's defense against invasion of infectious organisms.

Immune system

70

The hepatitis _____ series is recommended by CDC for all dental health care workers.

B

71

_____ provides infection control guidelines specifically for dental health care workers

The CDC

72

Failure to follow _____ regulations can result in fines or closures

OSHA

73

Which category of the exposure control plan is for individuals such as the accountant?

Category 3

74

______ is/are procedures used to prevent the spread of infection from surfaces and instruments.

Environmental controls

75

After the occurrence of an exposure incident, when should am evaluation of policies and the failure of the control methods be completed?

At the time the incident occur

76

All written policies on exposure incidents should be consistent with _____ regulations regarding exposure management.

State and federal

77

Which organization mandates specific work practices be in place to prevent exposures from occurring?

OSHA

78

_____ disinfectant is a tuberculocidal that kills most but not all bacterial spores.

High level

79

The universal technique for cleaning and disinfecting surface areas is the:

Spray, wipe, spray technique

80

______ is a poor surface disinfectant because it can take 10-90 minutes to disinfect.

Glutaraldehyde

81

A mask should be replaced

With every patient

82

Gross decay is decay that develops quickly and spreads rampantly throughout the mouth.

False

83

Dental caries is the most common chronic diseases in children.

True

84

Dried fruit is a great snack alternative in caries prevention.

False

85

The portion of the tooth that makes up the majority of the toothy structure:

Dentin

86

The primary layer of biofilm is composed of a layer called:

Pellicle

87

Demineralization causes a loss of _____ from the hydroxyapatite crystallites in the enamel.

Calcium and phosphate

88

Arrested carious lesions are often ______ in color.

All of the above

89

Multiple carious lesions present in the mouth would be categorized as:

Rampant caries

90

Which of the following electrolytes are found in saliva, and aid in the chemical protection process?

Phosphate and calcium

91

Which dental instrument is used to detect surface caries?

Explorer

92

Radiographs are used to detect ______ caries.

Interproximal

93

______ is an antibacterial mouth rinse used to help prevent oral infections.

Chlorhexidine

94

Which of the following is not a fermentable carbohydrate?

Cheese

95

The caries risk text is most often utilized in:

Public dental programs

96

Which of the following would be considered the least cariogenic?

Cheese

97

Dentin contains ______ amounts of calcium and _____ amounts of water as enamel.

Less; more

98

______ is the name of the sticky, tooth-colored material composed almost completely of bacteria

Plaque

99

Which of the following is not one of the he characteristics of pellicle?

Strengthens cementum

100

Remineralization will occur when ______ are redeposited in the demineralized area

Calcium and phosphate

101

The type of caries most prevalent in the geriatric population is:

Root surface

102

The type of caries found around the margins of an existing restoration is:

Recurrent

103

Indicator dyes are utilized to:

Stain caries

104

Which bacteria would be involved in the formation of an incipient carious lesion?

Mutans streptococci

105

Which of the following is the correct order for hardness of the different tooth structures ?

Enamel, dentin, cementum, pulp

106

Which of the following is the correct order for plaque formation?

Pellicle, mutans streptococci, loctobacilli, other microorganisms

107

Meth-mouth closely resembles:

Baby bottle mouth caries

108

Saliva has a ______ capacity that reduces the potential for acid formation.

Buffering

109

The most accepted means of caries detection is:

Explorer

110

_____ can be utilized to identify dentinal caries.

Indicator dyes

111

OSHA stands for Occupational Safety and Hazard Association

False

112

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration promotes and enforces workplace standards designed to protect the health and safety of workers

True

113

PPE stands for personal protection equipment

False

114

Official standards set forth by governmental agencies such as licensing boards are:

Regulations

115

One standard set forth by the OSHA is the Bloodborne Pathogens Standard. This standard is designed to:

Prevent disease transmission

116

Items such as sterilizers, biological and chemical indicators, ultrasonic cleaners, and dental units must be approved by the:

FDA

117

The national institute for Occupational Safety and Health is a component of:

CDC

118

Chemicals used in dentistry can be hazardous because they are highly reactive, toxic, carcinogenic, contaminated, combustible, or:

Degraded

119

Chemical degradation can be caused by exposure to heat, cold, or light; storage of the chemical beyond it's expected shelf life; or:

Moistur

120

Items such as paper towels, plastic cups, patient bibs, and disinfectant wipes are considered to be ______, which is _____.

General waste, unregulated

121

Human body fluids such as semen, vaginal secretions, cerebrospinal fluids amniotic fluids, and saliva in dental procedures are considered to be:

Infectious waste

122

Standards are designed to:

Promote the use of safe procedures

123

The _____ studies the safety, efficacy and promotional claims for dental materials and products

ADA council on scientific affairs

124

Chemicals can enter the body through ingestion; contact with the skin or mucous membrane; and:

Inhalation

125

Pathological waste includes:

Extracted teeth or tissue

126

Which of the following states does not have a federally approved OSHA program?

Ohio

127

Dental offices that fail to comply with safety regulations are subject to enforcement by such means as fines, license suspension, license revocation, and:

Imprisonment

128

Should a patient be consistently exposed to naturally occurring bacteria, she could become

Resistant to bacteria

129

The level of microbes in water coming out of an unmodified dental unit is almost always:

Higher than in drinking water

130

Dental water line water quality was first initiated in:

1965

131

The federal safe drinking water act deems _______ CFUs by year 2000.

500

132

What role does dental unit water line biofilm play in the microbial contamination of dental unit water?

Biofilm sheds bacteria into the water, causing increased levels of bacteria in the outgoing water

133

Bacteria benefit by capturing ________ from the water! which secondary bacteria begins to colonize.

Nutrients

134

The primary source of microorganisms in dental water lines is:

The city water supply

135

Dental personnel who are continuously exposed to bacterial aerosols through high-speed hand pieces and ultrasonic units have ______ levels of certain bacterial antibodies than does the general public.

Higher

136

Biofilm formation in dental unit water lines is dependent on the following characteristics of water flow:

Laminar and low rate flow, low volume use, and small diameter tubes

137

Standard precautions for dental treatment set by the ADA, CDC, and OSAP include:

Using an HVE, flushing lines 30 seconds between patients, and installing anti-retraction valves.

138

The bacteria within the dental unit water lines depend on ______ from the water for growth and reproduction.

Nutrients

139

In the dental office, the level of bacteria-contaminated water lines cannot be reduced by utilizing:

Brit water filters

140

A dental product that is categorized as being potentially combustible should not be stored near:

Heat

141

A blue diamond-shaped symbol on the NFPA labeling system denotes a ______ hazard.

Biohazard

142

When maintaining a Hazard Communication Program, employers must provide:

All of the above

143

The agency that regulates waste from the point of generation to the point of final disposal is:

EPA

144

OSHA seeks to protect _____, the FDA works to protect _____, and the EPA acts to protect ______.

Employees, general public, the environment

145

The agency responsible for making recommendations for the prevention of work-related injury and illnesses is:

NIOSH

146

Chemicals that contain infectious microorganisms and can spread disease are considered to be:

Contaminated

147

Biofilm is found in almost all places where moisture meets a suitable solid surface, and can contain many types of bacteria as well as fungi, algae, and Protozoa.

True

148

Monitoring of dental water lines can be accomplished only by sending water samples to an outside microbiology lab.

False

149

Heaters placed on dental units to allow for warm/hot water for patient comfort promote a more rapid growth of bacteria in the water lines.

True

150

A main concern of the bacteria in dental water lines is exposing patients to:

High concentrations of bacteria

151

The ADA recommends that dentists follow the infection control guidelines for biofilm reduction in dental unit water lines provided by the:

CDC

152

Methods to improve dental unit water quality include:

Improving the quality of the incoming water and controlling biofilm.

153

How often should the dental assistant replace dental unit water line filters that are installed to the unit?

Periodically, depending on the amount of biofilm in the line.

154

High speed handpiece, air/water syringe, and ultrasonic unit should all be flushed for______ seconds after each patient to purge all air and water.

20-30

155

The dental assistant can go to any dental manufacturer for education and _______ on the use and maintenance of their systems.

Training

156

_______agents should be stored in closed containers in a segregated area

Caustic