Module D-01 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Module D-01 Deck (32):
1

Which regions of cerebral cortex are sensory cortex areas found?

parietal, occipital, temporal, and insular lobes

2

The process of converting the stimulus into a neuronal signal is called

Signal Transduction

3

The process of interpretation of sensory input

Perception

4

Behavioral responses that are triggered at SUB cortical regions

Reflexes

5

What are the 4 sensory receptor classes ?

1) Mechanoreceptors
2) Thermoreceptors
3) Chemoreceptors
4) Photoreceptors

6

Which sensory systems use Mechanoreceptors?

1)Somatosensory system
2)Vestibular system
3)Auditory system

7

Which sensory systems use Thermoreceptors?

Somatosensory system ( uses all sensory receptors except photoreceptors)

8

Which sensory systems use Chemoreceptors?

1)Somatosensory system
2)Olfactory system
3) Gustatory system

9

Which sensory systems use Photoreceptors?

Visual system

10

Perikaryon aka

soma

11

Which are the 6 sensory systems?

1)Somatosensory system
2)Vestibular system
3)Auditory system
4))Olfactory system
5) Gustatory system
6)Visual system

12

Auditory hair cell is an example of a sensory _________, not a sensory __________ , therefore produces no _________

Receptor cell ;receptor neuron; Action Potentials

13

What 3 process occur in a sensory receptor NEURON:

1) Graded Receptor potential at the Transduction site
2)Action Potential in the axon
3) transmitter release at the terminal

14

__________ and ________ varies in Graded receptor potentials whereas the only variation in Action Potentials is the _________

Duration ; Intensity ; Frequency ( number of APs per time)

15

Area of axon where APs are generated once reaches threshold

Trigger zone (IIZ)

16

Trigger zone is sensory receptor neurons:

close to transduction site not at axon hillock ( motor neurons)

17

What type of cells are receptor cells like hair cells

Specialized Epithelial cells

18

What processes take place in a sensory receptor cell?

1) Graded Receptor Potential at the apical (transduction) site
2) Transmitter release at the base of the cell onto afferent fiber

19

What 4 Attributes are used to characterize a Sensory Stimulus?

1) Modality- type of stimulus
2)Intensity- amplitude
3)Duration- time
4)Location

20

How is stimulus Modality encoded in sensory systems?

Labelled line code

21

How is stimulus Intensity encoded in sensory systems?

Receptor potentials: amplitude ; low intensity stimuli cause small graded potentials
Action potentials: frequency code; HIgh intensity stimuli=> high receptor potentials above threshold=> high freq of APs

Population code: the high the intensity of the stimulus can activate more individual axons

22

How is stimulus Duration encoded in sensory systems?

Receptor adaptation rate:
Slowly adapting receptors: active for the whole stimulus duration ; remain depolarized and produce increased rates of action potentials for the whole duration of the stimulus

Rapidly adapting receptors: active during changes (on/off)
firing rate may increase during the onset of the stimulus, it may return to the basal rate during the duration of the stimulus, and the offset of the stimulus might cause a short drop in firing rate

23

How is stimulus Location encoded in sensory systems?

Receptive fields

24

What is the difference btw types of stimuli that slow and rapidly adapting receptors are more sensitive to?

-slowly adapting receptors - better in constantly monitoring
levels of stimulation
-Rapidly adapting receptors- most sensitive to
changes, not to constant stimulation

25

What is a receptive field?

area where responses can be induced in a certain neuron within a sensory pathway

26

What are the Three Basic Wiring Mechanisms of Sensory
Systems?

1) Convergence
2) Divergence
3) Lateral Inhibition

27

What is convergence?

When a second order neuron in a sensory pathway receives input from more than one first order neurons

28

What info does convergence in neurons give?

Where the information is coming from

29

What is divergence?

signal from one first order neuron diverges by sending axon collaterals to more than one subsequent neuron

30

Purpose of Divergence

tells us where the information is going to

31

Tor F----Convergence , divergence and lateral inhibition are mutually exculsive

False , they may coexist

32

What does Lateral inhibition help with?

-Two point discrimination
-Perception of a single stimulus against its background