Flashcards in Motivating operations Deck (19):
Change how much an organism wants something. A degree of deprivation increases the value of a reinforcer.
2 types of effects
Value altering and behaviour altering
An increase in the reinforcing effectiveness of some stimulus, object or event.
Establishing operation (EO)
A decrease in the reinforcing effectiveness of some stimulus, object or event.
Abolishing operation (AO)
An increase in the current frequency of behaviour that has been reinforced by some stimulus, object or event.
A decrease in the current frequency of behaviour that has been reinforced by some stimulus, object or event.
Sd vs MO
Sd = reinforcement available
MO = reinforcement valuable
Food as an example of an EO and AO.
Food deprivation (EO) increases the reinforcing effectiveness of food, and increases the current frequency of behaviours reinforced with food.
Food ingestion (AO) decreases the reinforcing effectiveness of food, and decreases the current frequency of behaviours reinforced with food.
Unconditioned MOs (UMO)
Value-altering motivating effects that are unlearned
Man has just run a marathon
Man outside in snow
Conditioned MOs (CMO)
Motivating variables that alter the reinforcing effectiveness of other stimuli, objects or events, but only as a result of an organism's learning history.
3 types of CMO
A previously neutral stimulus that, following temporal association with a UMO independently alters the probability of associated behaviours.
eg. hunger (UMO) paired with 12:00 (neutral). 12:00 becomes CMO-S and makes person feel hungry without presence of UMO.
A previously neutral stimulus that acquires its motivative effect through correlation with a set of worsening or improvement conditions.
Its onset establishes the value of its removal or continued presence.
Stimuli in the context of which the existing conditioned reinforcers or punishers is altered, as is the likelihood of behaviours occurring that have been associated with such behaviours in the past.
eg. thirsty: can machine (Sd), money (S2), coin in slot (R), drink (C).
'Threat' CMO or 'promise' CMO
Can teach a chain of behaviours to obtain reinforcement