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Principles of BA > Punishment > Flashcards

Flashcards in Punishment Deck (17):
1

Punishment

Punishment has occurred when a response is followed immediately be a stimulus change that decreases the future frequency of similar responses.

2

A punisher

A consequence that decreases the probability of a response.

3

Positive punishment

The addition of a stimulus after a behaviour that results in a decrease in the probability of that behaviour occurring again under similar circumstances.

4

Negative punishment

The removal of a stimulus after a behaviour that results in a decrease in the probability of that behaviour occurring again under similar circumstances.

5

Time-out

The loss of access to positive reinforcers for a brief period contingent on the behaviour.

6

Unconditioned punishers

A stimulus whose presentation functions as punishment without having been paired with any other punishers.
eg. light, sound, temperature

7

Conditioned punishers

A stimulus change that functions as a result of a person's conditioning history.

8

Generalized punishers

A stimulus paired with numerous other stimuli. eg. reprimands and social disapproval.

9

Factors influencing punishment

- Immediacy
- Intensity and magnitude

10

Unintended consequences of punishment

- emotional and aggressive behaviours.
- escape and avoidance.
- punishment may involve undesirable modelling.
Negative reinforcement of the punishing agents behaviour.

11

Extinction

A behaviour that has been previously reinforced, is no longer reinforced, and so the behaviour stops occurring in the future.

12

21 month old boy, tantrums maintained by attention. Parents spent 0.5-2 hours in bedroom every night. First night of extinction he cried for 45 minutes, and gradual reduction over the following nights.

Williams (1959)

13

Variations of extinction

Positive reinforcer is no longer delivered after the behaviour.
OR
Aversive stimulus is no longer removed after the behaviour.

14

Extinction does not mean ignoring!!

It means withdrawing the reinforcer for a behaviour.
Only ignoring if attention is the reinforcer.

15

When an extinction is started, operant behaviour tends to increase in frequency.

Extinction burst

16

Short-lived increase in behaviour that may re-appear after extinction has been introduced although it has not been reinforced.

Spontaneous recovery

17

Occurrence of...

novel behaviours, emotional responses or aggressive behaviour.