Behaviourism Flashcards Preview

Principles of BA > Behaviourism > Flashcards

Flashcards in Behaviourism Deck (30):
1

Watson

'Father of behaviourism'.
Focus on overt behaviour.
Stimulus-response.
Fear conditioning 'little albert'.

2

Thorndike

'The law of effect'.
Role of consequences in learning.
'Puzzle box'- cats.

3

Skinner

KEY FIGURE.
- Radical behaviourism.
- Experimental analysis of behaviour.
- Operant conditioning.

4

Radical behaviourism

(philosophy)
The philosophy of behaviour analysis, based on the scientific approach to the study of behaviour, which maintains that all behaviour is a function of the interaction of ontogenic an phylogenic variables.

5

Ontogeny

The development of an organism during its lifetime.

6

Phylogeny

The evolutionary history of a species.

7

Determinism

Assumes behaviour is lawful and determined. In principle behaviour can be predicted and controlled.

8

Empiricism

Define, systematically observe, and accurately and reliably measure the phenomenon of interest.

9

Experimentation

Identification of functional relations. Observation of the phenomenon of interest (DV) and systematic manipulation of one factor at a time (IV).

10

Philosophic Doubt

Question what is regarded as fact- knowledge is tentative.

11

Replication

Repeating experiments and independent variable conditions within experiments. Verify results and eliminate experimenter bias.

12

Parsimony

The idea that simple, logical explanations must be ruled out, experimentally or conceptually, before more complex or abstract explanations are considered.

13

Experimental analysis of behaviour

(basic research)
Study of behaviour

14

Functional relation

Experimental demonstration of relationship between the behaviour and environmental events. (correlation not cause and effect!!).
The tendency of one event to vary in a regular way with one or more other events.

15

Operant behaviour

Emitted behaviour which is strengthened or weakened by events that follow a response.

16

Three term contingency

S- stimuli (environmental)
R- response (behaviour)
S- stimulus (consequence)
Behaviour shaped by consequence, but also the conditions in place when behaviour occurs.

17

Applied behaviour analysis

(Applied research)
The scientific application of behavioural principles to issues of social importance.

18

Applied

Behaviours of social significance and immediate importance to the participants.

19

Behavioural

Behaviour must be in need of intervention, measurable, and if change occurs, whose behaviour has changed?
Was the intervention really needed?

20

Analytic

Functional relations between events and behaviour.

21

Technological

Procedures used are identified and precisely described.

22

Conceptually systematic

Procedures reported in terms of the relevant behavioural principles.

23

Effective

Must improve the behaviour under investigation to a practical degree.

24

General

Behaviour change has generality if it lasts over time, appears in novel environments, or spreads to novel behaviours.

25

Other characteristics of ABA

Accountable- demonstrate effects.
Public- easily accessed.
Doable- can be used by anyone.
Empowering- real tools that work.
Optimistic- why not? attitude.

26

Mentalism

Appealing to initiating causes from an 'inner' dimension when trying to explain behaviour. Combines the mental and the physical.

27

Dualism

The mind (non-physical dimension) is presumed to cause behaviour.

28

Methodological behaviourism

No thoughts or feelings are considered in analysis. Behaviours are those that can be seen.
Skinner denies the existence of a mental world, assuming no kind of special mental stuff.

29

Process of behaviourism

Environment (current and history) ->causes -> behaviour (including private events)

30

Private events

Thoughts, feelings, emotions, attitudes etc.
Private because only the person who has them can observe them.