Flashcards in Behaviourism Deck (30):
'Father of behaviourism'.
Focus on overt behaviour.
Fear conditioning 'little albert'.
'The law of effect'.
Role of consequences in learning.
'Puzzle box'- cats.
- Radical behaviourism.
- Experimental analysis of behaviour.
- Operant conditioning.
The philosophy of behaviour analysis, based on the scientific approach to the study of behaviour, which maintains that all behaviour is a function of the interaction of ontogenic an phylogenic variables.
The development of an organism during its lifetime.
The evolutionary history of a species.
Assumes behaviour is lawful and determined. In principle behaviour can be predicted and controlled.
Define, systematically observe, and accurately and reliably measure the phenomenon of interest.
Identification of functional relations. Observation of the phenomenon of interest (DV) and systematic manipulation of one factor at a time (IV).
Question what is regarded as fact- knowledge is tentative.
Repeating experiments and independent variable conditions within experiments. Verify results and eliminate experimenter bias.
The idea that simple, logical explanations must be ruled out, experimentally or conceptually, before more complex or abstract explanations are considered.
Experimental analysis of behaviour
Study of behaviour
Experimental demonstration of relationship between the behaviour and environmental events. (correlation not cause and effect!!).
The tendency of one event to vary in a regular way with one or more other events.
Emitted behaviour which is strengthened or weakened by events that follow a response.
Three term contingency
S- stimuli (environmental)
R- response (behaviour)
S- stimulus (consequence)
Behaviour shaped by consequence, but also the conditions in place when behaviour occurs.
Applied behaviour analysis
The scientific application of behavioural principles to issues of social importance.
Behaviours of social significance and immediate importance to the participants.
Behaviour must be in need of intervention, measurable, and if change occurs, whose behaviour has changed?
Was the intervention really needed?
Functional relations between events and behaviour.
Procedures used are identified and precisely described.
Procedures reported in terms of the relevant behavioural principles.
Must improve the behaviour under investigation to a practical degree.
Behaviour change has generality if it lasts over time, appears in novel environments, or spreads to novel behaviours.
Other characteristics of ABA
Accountable- demonstrate effects.
Public- easily accessed.
Doable- can be used by anyone.
Empowering- real tools that work.
Optimistic- why not? attitude.
Appealing to initiating causes from an 'inner' dimension when trying to explain behaviour. Combines the mental and the physical.
The mind (non-physical dimension) is presumed to cause behaviour.
No thoughts or feelings are considered in analysis. Behaviours are those that can be seen.
Skinner denies the existence of a mental world, assuming no kind of special mental stuff.
Process of behaviourism
Environment (current and history) ->causes -> behaviour (including private events)