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Flashcards in Mouth - Pharynx Deck (71):
1

What are the 2/(3) parts of the oral cavity?

It is lined by..?

parts:

  • vestibulum oris
  • cavitas oris propria
  • (isthmus faucium)

 

lined by tunica mucosa oris

2

What are the borders of the vestibulum oris?

What opens into it?

  • anteriorly: lips
  • interiorly: dental arches
  • laterally: cheeks

 

minor salivary glands + gl. parotidea

3

What are the borders of the cavitas oris propria?

  • anteriorly + laterally: proc. alveolares, teeth, gingiva
  • posteriorly: isthmus faucium
  • roof: palatum durum/molle
  • floor: diaphragma orist

4

#1 - 5

Q image thumb

1) cheek

2) lip

3) vestibulum oris

4) arcus palatopharyngeus

5) arcus palatoglossus

5

#6 - 10

Q image thumb

6) uvula

7) tonsilla palatina

8) processus alveolaris

9) frenulum labii inf.

10) frenulum labii sup.

6

#11 - 14

Q image thumb

11) papilla incisiva

12) raphe palati

13) plicae palatinae transversae

14) isthmus faucium

7

What are the layers of the cheeks?

from inside to outside:

  • tunica mucosa oris
  • m. buccinator
  • corpus adiposum buccae
  • m. masseter

8

#1 - 5

 

Which 2 structures meet at #4?

What seperates the lips from the cheeks?

Q image thumb

1) labium superior

2) labium inferior

3) angulus oris

4) rima oris (vermillion border + mucosa meet)

5) philtrum

 

sulcus nasolabialis

9

How are the lips and cheecks innervated?

Which vessels are responsible for the blood supply?

  • sensory innervation: 
    • upper lip: n. infraorbitalis
    • lower lip: n. mentalis
    • tunica mucosa: n. buccalis
  • blood supply: a. + v. facialis

10

What are the muscles of the diaphragma oris? 

By which muscle is it mainly formed?

What is their common action?

muscles: = suprahyoid muscles

  • m. mylohyoideus (main part of diaphragma oris)
  • m. geniohyoideus
  • m. digastricus
  • m. stylohyoideus

 ⇒ active opening of mouth, raising hyoid, swallowing

11

Q image thumb

m. mylohyoideus

  • ORIGIN: linea mylohyoidea
  • INSERTION: raphe + hyoid bone
  • INNERVATION: n. mylohyoideus (n. mandibularis)

12

Q image thumb

m. geniohyoideus

  • ORIGIN: spina mentalis
  • INSERTION: hyoid bone
  • INNERVATION: ventral rami of plexus cervicalis

13

Q image thumb

m. digastricus

  • ORIGIN: 
    • venter ant.: fossa digastrica
    • venter post.: incisura mastoidea
  • INSERTION: hyoid bone
  • INNERVATION:
    • venter ant.: n. mylohyoideus
    • venter post.: n. facialis

 

14

Q image thumb

m. stylohyoideus

  • ORIGIN: proc. styloideus
  • INSERTION: corpus + cornu majus
  • INNERVATION: n. facialis

15

#1 - 5

 

What opens into #3?

Which structure forms #4?

Which glands open into #5?

Mistake in drawing: #5 is at medial tip of #4, 

Q image thumb

1) frenulum linguae

2) v. profunda linguae

3) plica fimbriata (gl. lingualis ant. opens into)

4) plica sublingualis (gl. sublingualis)

5) caruncula sublingualis (gl. sublingualis, submandibularis open into)

16

Where is the sulcus lateralis linguae?

What does it contain?

btw m. mylohyoideus & m. hyoglossus

 

content:

  • n. hypoglossus
  • n. lingualis
  • v. sublingualis
  • ductus submandibularis (Wharton duct)

17

What are the layers of the palatum durum?

What does the most superficial layer contain in its posterior portion and what is it continuous with?

from deep to superficial:

  • skeletal framework: proc. palatini maxillae, laminae horizontales of palatine bone
  • periosteum
  • thick mucosa (small mucous secr. gll. palatinae in post. portion), continuous with gingiva

18

Give another name for palatum molle

velum palatini

19

#1

Q image thumb

m. tensor veli palatini

  • ORIGIN: cranial base, tuba auditiva
  • INSERTION: aponeurosis palatina
  • INNERVATION: n. mandibularis
  • ACTION: tenses + elevates palatum molle, opens tuba auditiva

20

#2

Q image thumb

m. levator veli palatini

  • ORIGIN: cranial base
  • INSERTION: aponeurosis palatina
  • INNERVATION: plexus pharyngeus (n. glossopharyngeus, n vagus)
  • ACTION: elevates + retracts palatum molle, opens tuba auditiva

 

21

#3

Q image thumb

m. palatoglossus

  • ORIGIN: aponeurosis palatina
  • INSERTION: lat. margin of base of tongue
  • INNERVATION: n. glosspharyngeus
  • ACTION: contracts isthmus faucium

22

#4

Q image thumb

m. palatopharyngeus

  • ORIGIN: aponeurosis palatina
  • INSERTION: in arcus palatopharyngeus
  • INNERVATION: n. glosspharyngeus
  • ACTION: elevates isthmus faucium

23

m. uvulae

  • ORIGIN: aponeurosis palatina, palatum durum
  • INSERTION: aponeurosis uvulae
  • INNERVATION: plexus pharyngeus
  • ACTION: shortens uvula

24

What are the 4 different kinds of papillae linguales?

Give brief information.

  • papillae filiformes: 
    • threadlike
    • all over the dorsum
    • tactile information
  • papillae fungiformes: 
    • mushroom-shaped
    • on margins
    • taste buds, mechano-/thermoreceptors
  • papillae foliatae: 
    • leaf-shaped
    • in rows along post. margin of tongue
    • contain abundant taste buds

  • papillae vallate:
    • largest type
    • 7-12 ant. to sulcus terminalis
    • taste buds

25

Explain the sensory innervation of the tongue.

Which nerve innervates all tongue muscles?

Sensory:

  • pars presulcis: n. lingualis (
  • pars postsulcis: n. glossopharyngeus
  • receptor organs:
    • except pap. vallate: chorda tympani (
    • valleculae epiglotticae: n. vagus

 ⇒ muscular innervation by n. hypoglossus

26

#1 - 5

Q image thumb

1) m. palatoglossus

2) m. styloglossus

3) m. genioglossus

4) m. hyoglossus

5) hyoid bone

27

#6 - 7

Q image thumb

6) spina mentalis

7) mandibula

28

Q image thumb

m. genioglossus

  • ORIGIN: spina mentalis
  • INSERTION: aponeurosis linguae
  • ACTION: tongue forward, downward

29

Q image thumb

m. hyoglossus​

  • ORIGIN: cornu majus of hyoid bone
  • INSERTION: aponeurosis linguae
  • ACTION: tongue backward, upward

30

Q image thumb

m. styloglossus

  • ORIGIN: proc. styloideus
  • INSERTION: tongue, apex linguae
  • ACTION: tongue backward, upward

31

What are the 3 kinds of intrinsic muscles of the tongue? Name their action + innervation.

What seperates them?

  • mm. longitudinales sup. + inf.
  • m. transversus linguae
  • m. verticalis linguae

 ⇒ alter shape of tongue (2 work antagonistically)

 ⇒ innervated by n. hypoglossus

 ⇒ seperated by septum linguae

32

#1 - 5

Q image thumb

1) apex linguae

2) dorsum linguae

3) sulcus terminalis

4) foramen caecum

5) pars presulcalis

33

#6 - 10

Q image thumb

6) pars postsulcalis

7) margo linguae

8) sulcus medianus linguae

9) tonsilla palatina

10) plica glossoepiglottica mediana

34

#11 - 13

Q image thumb

11) plica glossoepiglottica lateralis

12) valleculae epiglotticae

13) folliculi linguales

35

Differentiate btw minor salivary glands.

Where are they located and what is their function?

  • mucous glands: in lips, cheeks, tongue, palate + gl. lingualis ant.
  • serous glands: cleansing glands on papillae

 ⇒ moisten oral mucosa

36

What are the 3 major salivary glands?

  • gl. parotidea 
  • gl. submandibularis
  • gl. sublingualis

37

What does the gl. parotidea secrete?

Where is it located?

Where does it drain into?

Are there any special features?

How is it innervated?

 

  • type of secretion: purely serous
  • location: encapsuled by fascia parotidea, located in fossa retromandibularis (parotid nest)
  • drains into: into papilla parotidea in vestibulum oris at upper 2nd premolar via ductus parotideus
  • special feature: ductus parotideus (= STENSEN duct) often accompanied by gl. parotidea accessoria
  • innervation: parasymp. by n. glossopharyngeus (IX)

38

What are symptoms of mumps?

  1. inflammation → enlargement  of gl. parotidea → pressure on n. facialis
  2. ductus parotideus visible in vestibulum oris

 

39

What does the gl. submandibularis secrete?

Where is it located?

Where does it drain into?

How is it innervated?

  • secretion: predominantly serous
  • location: in trigonum submandibulare
  • drains into: caruncula sublingualis via ductus submandibularis (= Wharton duct)
  • innervation: parasymp. by chorda tympani

40

What does the gl. sublingualis secrete?

Where is it located and it is responsible for the formation of which structure?

Where do its parts drain into?

How is it innervated?

  • secretion: predominantly mucous
  • location: on m. mylohyoideus, forms plica sublingualis
  • drains into:
    • principal gland via duct of Bartholin into caruncula sublingualis
    • minor sublingual glands via ducts of Rivinus into plica sublingualis
  • innervation: parasymp. by chorda tympani

41

How much saliva is produced each day in average?

Differentiate.

approx. 0.5 - 1.5l/day

 

Types of saliva:

  • resting saliva: mostly by gl. submandibularis
  • stimulated saliva: 50% by gl. parotidea

42

#1 - 5

Q image thumb

1) m. sternocleidomastoideus

2) m. digastricus, venter post.

3) m. masseter

4) m. pterygoideus med.

5) "stylo-" muscles

43

#6 - 11

Q image thumb

6) proc. pterygoideus

7) gl. parotidea

8) ramus mandibulae

9) n. facialis

10) n. auricotemporalis

11) fascia parotideomasseterica 

44

How long is the pharynx and what are its 3 parts?

Each part extends from .. to.. ?

12 - 15 cm

  • pars nasalis pharyngis: choana → palatum molle
  • pars oralis pharyngis: palatum molle → plica pharyngoepiglottica
  • pars laryngea pharyngis: plica pharyngoepiglottica → esophagus

45

Which structures open into the pharynx?

Consider the esophagus as a continuation.

  • nasal cavity → choana → nasopharynx
  • oral cavity → isthmus faucium → oropharynx
  • larynx → aditus larnygis → laryngopharynx
  • middle ear → tuba auditiva → nasopharynx

46

What surrounds the pharynx?

It can be differentiated into.. ?

It connects to.. ?

spatium peripharyngeum: = filled with conn. tissue

  • spatium retropharyngeum
  • spatium parapharyngeum

 ⇒ connects to mediastinum caudally

47

Differentiate btw the different structures of tunica mucosa in the different parts of the pharnyx.

 

  • in nasopharynx: ciliated resp epithelium

  • in oro-/laryngopharynx: stratified non-keratinized squamous epithelium, gll. pharyngeales → saliva

  • subepithelial conn. tissue: elastic fibers allow stretching/coiling

48

Which muscles act upon the pharynx?

They are innervated by.. ?

  • constrictors: by plexus pharyngeus
    • m. constrictor pharyngis superior
    • m. constrictor pharyngis medius
    • m. constrictor pharyngis inferior
  • levatores pharyngis: by n. glossopharyngeus
    • ​m. stylopharyngeus
    • m. palatopharyngeus
    • m. salpingopharyngeus

49

Which nerves form the plexus pharyngeus?

n. glosspharyngeus (IX) + n. vagus (X)

50

What are the parts of m. constrictor pharyngis superior? 

Origin, insertion, action?

What does it form when contracted?

  • ORIGIN:
    • pars pterygoph.: proc. pterygoideus
    • pars buccoph.: raphe pterygomandibularis
    • pars myloph.: linea mylohyoidea
    • pars glossoph.: tongue
  • INSERTION: raphe pharyngis
  • ACTION: closure of nasal cavity ⇒ Passavant's ridge

51

What are the parts of m. constrictor pharyngis medius?

Origin, insertion, action.

  • ORIGIN:
    • pars chondroph.: cornu minus of hyoid bone
    • pars ceratoph.: cornu majus of hyoid bone
  • INSERTION: raphe pharyngis
  • ACTION: movement of bolus

52

What are the parts of m. constrictor pharyngis inferior?

Origin, insertion, action.

Which special structures are formed by it?

  • ORIGIN:
    • pars tyroph.: cartilago thyroidea
    • pars cricoph.: cartilago cricoidea

 ⇒ Killian's (cranially), Laimer's triangle (caudally)

  • INSERTION: raphe pharyngis
  • ACTION: closure of aditus laryngis

53

What is the clinical relevance of Killian's triangle?

weakest point of pharynx → possible site of hernias → Zenker's diverticulum (up to fist size)

54

Which tonsills from a special structure in the area of the pharynx and what is its name?

What is their function?

Waldeyer's ring:

  • 1x t. pharyngea
  • 2x t. tubaria
  • 2x t. palatina
  • 1x t. lingualis

 ⇒ first contact btw tidal air + food → lymphatic action 

55

What can be possible effects of adenoids?

swelling → possible closure of ostium pharyngeum tubae auditivae → deafness

56

What is essential for a successful deglutition?

Explain each procedure.

 

  • closure of nasopharynx: closure upper airways
    • elevation of isthmus faucium
    • contraction of m. constrictor pharyngis sup. → Passavant's ridge
  • closure of larynx: closure lower airways
    • elevation of larynx against epiglottis by mm. levatores pharyngis + diaphragma oris 
  • movement of bolus to esophagus: by mm. of tongue and mm. constrictores 

57

#1 - 5

Q image thumb

1) fornix

2) t. pharyngea

3) choana

4) plica salpingopharyngea + m. 

5) plica salpingopalatina + m. 

58

#6 - 9

Q image thumb

6) torus tobarius

7) torus levatorius

8) ostium pharyngeum tubae auditivea

9) t. tobaria

59

What might be the effect of an enlarged pharyngeal tonsil in children?

→ displacing choanae → impairing nasal breathing

or

→ displacing pharyngeal opening of the auditory tube → abnormal ventilation of the auditory tube

60

Torus levatorius and torus tobarius can serve as .. ?

anatomical landmarks for a probe and catheter to examine the tuba auditiva

61

#1 - 5

 

What forms #3 also?

Q image thumb

1) cartilago cricoidea

2) cartilago thyroidea

3) os hyoideum (cornu majus)

4) cornu minus

5) mandibula

62

#6 - 10

Q image thumb

6) linea mylohyoidea

7) proc. pterygoideus

8) tuberculum pharyngeum

9) clivus

10) raphe pterygomandibularis

63

#11 - 16

Q image thumb

11) fascia pharyngobasilaris

12) lamina prevertebralis of fascia cervicalis

13) spatium retropharyngeum

14) m. constrictor pharyngis superior

15) m. constrictor pharyngis medius

16) m. constrictor pharyngis inferior

64

Explain heterodont dentition.

Also list the different types.

teeth are shaped according to their function

types of teeth per quadrant:

  • 2 incisives → biting
  • 1 canine → tearing + grasping
  • 2 premolars → grinding
  • 3 molars → chewing

⇒ 32 teeth in total

 

65

Explain diphyodont dentition.

deciduous teeth are replaced by permanent teeth

  • first deciduous after 6 - 7 months
  • first permanent at 6 - 7th year

BUT: NO molar deciduous teeth → only 20 inst. of 32

66

Differentiate btw tooth segments.

  • root (radix) = in procc. alveolares of maxilla/mandible
  • neck (cervix dentis) = in gingiva
  • crown (corona) = with apex/cusps

67

How many roots does each type of tooth have?

  • incisive: 1 root
  • canine: 1 root
  • premolar: 2 roots for upper, 1 root for lower
  • molar: 3 roots for upper, 2 roots for lower

68

Explain following terms:

  • buccal surface
  • labial surface
  • lingual surface
  • palatal surface
  • mesial surface
  • distal surface
  • apikal surface
  • cervical surface
  • occlusal surface

  • buccal surface = to cheeks (vestibular)
  • labial surface = to lips (vestibular)
  • lingual surface = to tongue (upper)
  • palatal surface = to palatine (lower)
  • mesial surface = ant./med.
  • distal surface = post./lat.
  • apikal surface = to apex
  • cervical surface = to cervix
  • occlusal surface = to opposing dental arcade

69

Explain the dental formula for deciduous as well as permanent teeth.

first digit = quadrant 

  • 1 - 4 for permanent
  • 5 - 8 for deciduous

second digit = tooth from mesial to distal

  • 1 - 8 for permanent 
  • 1 - 5 for deciduous

ex: 63 = canine in left max. quadrant

A image thumb
70

Explain the structure of teeth.

  • bulk of tooth = dentin + inside pulp cavity (vascularized)
  • crown covered by enamel 
  • cervix + root covered by cementum

⇒ tooth held in proc. alveolaris by periodontal lig.

periodontium = periodontal lig., cementum, gingiva + alveolar wall

 

71

Which vessels supply/drain the teeth?

Innervation?

supply:

  • upper jaw: a. infraorbitalis → a. alveolaris sup. ant./post./med.
  • lower jaw: a. maxillaris → a. alveolaris inf.

drainage: cf. supply

innervation: (all from rami of n. trigeminus) cf. supply