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Flashcards in Vessels Deck (61):

What is the name of the first part of the aorta?

What are the branches of arcus aortae?


aorta ascendens

arcus aortae:

  • truncus brachiocephalicus
    • a. subclavia dextra
    • a. carotis communis dextra
  • a. carotis communis sinistra
  • a. subclavia sinistra

in 10%: either as 4th branch/arcus aorticus: a. thyroidea ima → thyroid gland


List the branches of the abdominal aorta in craniocaudal direction.

Where do they end (only paired branches)?

parietal branches

  • a. phrenica inferior (2) → diaphragm
  • aa. lumbales (8) → a. intercostales

visceral branches

  • truncus coeliacus below hiatus aorticus
  • a. mesenterica superior below pancreas
  • a. suprarenalis media (2) → adrenal glands
  • a. renalis (2) at L2 → a. suprarenalis inf.
  • a. testicularis/ovarica (2) → spermatic cord/ovaries
  • a. mesenterica inferior above bifurcatio aortae

end branches

  • a. sacralis mediana on sacrum → (5) a. lumbalis
  • a. iliaca communis at L4 → a. iliaca int./ext.


List the branches of truncus coeliacus.

What does it supply?


 ⇒ supplies upper abdominal organs

  • a. gastrica sin. → anastomosis with a. gastrica dex. in curvatura minor
  • a. hepatica communis
  • a. splenica


List the branches of a. hepatica communis

→ 2nd generation

  • a. hepatica propria → liver
    • a. cystica → gall bladder
    • a. gastrica dex. → anastomosis with a. gastrica sin. in curvatura minor
  • a. gastroduodenalis 
    • a. gastroomentalis dex. → anastomosis with a. gastroomentalis sin. in curvatura major
    • a. pancreaticoduodenalis sup. ant./post. → LESSER RIOLAN anastomosis with inf. ant./post. 


List the branches of a. splenica.

  • ​​rr. pancreatici + a. pancreatica dorsalis → corpus/tail of pancreas
  • a. gastroomentalis sin. → anastomosis with a. gastroomentalis dex. in curvatura major
  • aa. gastrici breves → cardia/fundus of stomach
  • rr. splenici → spleen


List the branches of a. mesenterica superior.

What does it supply?

 ⇒ supplies distal duodenum, entire small intestine, large intestine until 2/3 of colon transversum

  • a. pancreaticoduodenalis inf.
    • ant./post. → LESSER RIOLAN anastomosis with a. pancreaticoduodenalis sup. ant./post. 
  • 4-5 aa. jejunales + 12 aa. ileales → jejunum, ileum
  • a. colica media → GREATER RIOLAN anastomosis with a. colica sin.
  • a. colica dextra → colon ascendens
  • a. ileocolica 


List the branches of a. ileocolica.

  • r. colicus → colon ascendens
  • r. ilealis → ileum
  • a. appendicularis → appendix vermiformis
  • a. caecalis ant./post. → cecum


List the branches of a. mesenterica inferior.

What does it supply?

 ⇒ supplies left colon

  • a. colica sin. → GREATER RIOLAN anastomosis with a. colica media → colon descendens
  • aa. sigmoideae → SUDECK anastomosis with a. rectalis sup. → colon sigmoideum
  • a. rectalis sup. → cf. aa. sigmoidea → upper part of rectum, corpus cavernosum recti


Where are important arterial anastomoses in the abdominal cavity?

  • LESSER RIOLAN anastomosis: truncus coeliacus + a. mesenterica sup. via aa. pancreaticoduodenales
  • GREATER RIOLAN anastomosis: a. mesenterica sup./inf. via a. colica med./sin.
  • SUDECK anastomosis: anastomosis btw a. rectalis sup. + a. sigmoidea 


#1 - 5/6

1) pars abdominalis aortae

2) r. oesophagealis

3) truncus coeliacus

4) a. gastrica sin.

5+6) aa. gastricae breves



#7 - 11

7) a. splenica

8) a. gastroomentalis sin.

9) a. pancreatica magna

10) a. caudae pancreatis

11) a. gastroomentalis dex.


#12 - 16

12) a. splenica

13) a. gastrica dextra

14) a. hepatica communis

15) a. hepatica propria

16) a. cystica


#17 - 21

17) a. gastroduodenalis

18) a. pancreatica dorsalis

19) a. supraduodenalis

20) a. pancreaticoduodenalis sup. post.

21) a. pancreaticoduodenalis sup. ant.



#22 - 26/27

22) a. mesenterica sup.

23) a. pancreaticoduodenalis inf.

24) a. mesenterica inf.

25) a. colica sin.

26+27) aa. sigmoideae


#28 - 32/33

28) a. rectalis inf.

29) a. rectalis sup.

30) a. colica med.

31) a. colica dex.

32+33) aa. jejunales


#34 - 37

#35/36 is the same

34) a. ileocolica

35+36) aa. ileales

37) a. appendicularis


List the tributaries of v. portae.

Where do they originate from?

 ⇒ receives blood from unpaired abdominal organs

  • v. cystica (from gall bladder)
  • vv. paraumbilicales (accompany lig. teres hepatis from abd. wall)
  • v. gastrica dex./sin. (from stomach)
  • v. pylorica (from pylorus)
  • v. pancreaticoduodenalis sup. post. (from head of pancreas)
  • v. splenica (from spleen, parts of pancreas/stomach)
  • v. mesenterica superior (from duodenum, small intestine, parts of colon/stomach)
  • v. mesenterica inferior (from colon/rectum)


List the tributaries of v. splenica.

  • vv. gastricae breves (from fundus/upper part of curvatura major)
  • v. gastroomentalis sin.
  • v. gastrica posterior (not always)
  • vv. pancreaticae (esp. from tail of pancreas)


List the tributaries of v. mesenterica superior.

  • v. gastroomentalis dex. + vv. pancreaticoduodenales
  • vv. pancreaticae (from head + corpus of pancreas)
  • vv. jejunales, ileales
  • v. ileocolica
  • v. colica dextra
  • v. colica media


List the tributaries of v. mesenterica inferior.

  • v. colica sin.
  • v. sigmoidea
  • v. rectalis sup. (anastomosis with v. rectalis med./inf.)


List the portocaval anastomoses.


  • btw esophagus/cardia
  • around navel
  • at rectum
  • retroperitoneal


Which vessels from the portocaval anastomosis btw esophagus and cardia?

Which vv. belong to the portal, which to the caval system?

Why is it clinically relevant?

vv. gastricae (portal) + vv. esophageales (caval) → v. azygos/v. hemiazygos → v. cava superior

 ⇒ can cause esophageal varices



Which vessels from the portocaval anastomosis around the navel?

Why is it clinically relevant?

vv. paraumbilicales → v. epigastrica sup./inf. → v. thoracoepigastrica/v. epigastrica superficialis → v. cava superior

 ⇒ can cause caput medusae syndrome


Which vessels form the portocaval anastomosis at the rectum?

Which vv. belong to the portal, which to the caval system?

Why is it clinically relevant?

v. rectalis sup. (portal) + v. rectalis med./inf. (caval) → v. iliaca int. → v. cava inferior

 ⇒ can cause hemorrhages


Give an example for a retroperitoneal portocaval anastomosis.

ex: v. mesenterica inf. + v. testicularis/ovarica → v. cava inf.


#1 - 5/6

What is the clinical importance of 5/6?

1) v. azygos

2) v. hemiazygos

3) v. portae hepatis

4) v. hepatica

5+6) plexus venosus submucosus → site for esophageal varices


#7/8 - 12

7+8) vv. oesophageae

9) v. phrenica inf.

10) v. gastrica inf.

11) v. splenica

12) v. renalis sin.


#13 - 17

13) v. testicularis/ovarica

14) v. mesenterica inf.

15) v. mesenterica sup.

16) v. colica sup.

17) v. sigmoidea


#18 - 22

What is the clinical importance of 20?

18) v. cava inf.

19) v. rectalis sup.

20) v. paraumbilicalis → site for caput medusae syndrome

21) v. epigastrica superificalis

22) v. iliaca communis


#23 - 25/26

What is the clinical importance of 25/26?

23) v. epigastrica inf.

24) v. iliaca int.

25+26) vv. rectales inf. → site of hemorrhages



List the parietal branches of a. iliaca interna.

What do they supply?


5 parietal branches ⇒ supply mm. of hip, pelvic diaphragm, external genitals, proximal adductors

  • a. iliolumbalis cf. own flashcard
  • aa. sacrales laterales
    • rr. spinales → sacral canal, anastomose w/ a. sacralis mediana
  • a. obturatoria w/ n. obturatorius through canalis obturatorius cf. own flashcard
  • a. glutea superior through foramen piriforme → glutes
  • a. glutea inferior through foramen infrapiriforme → m. gluteus maximus



List the branches of a. ileolumbalis

  • r. iliacus → m. iliacus, anastomoses w/ a. circumflexa ilium profunda
  • r. lumbalis → m. psoas + m. quadratus lumborum, anastomoses w/ a. lumbalis r. spinalis


List the branches of a. obturatoria

  • r. pubicus → anastomoses w/ a. epigastrica inf.
  • r. anterior → symphysis + adductors, anastomoses w/ a. circumflexa femoris medialis
  • r. posterior → glutes + tuber ischiadicum
  • r. acetabularis → through incisura acetabula into lig. capitis femoris + head of femur


List the visceral branches of a. iliaca interna.

What do they supply?

visceral branches ⇒  supply the pelvic organs

  • a. umbilicalis
  • a. vesicalis inferior → fundus of urinary bladder, prostate gland + seminal vesicles/ vagina
  • a. uterina
  • a. vaginalis
  • a. rectalis media → branches at ampulla recti
  • a. pudenda interna through foramen infrapiriforme + ischiadicum minus to side of fossa ischioanalis into canalis pudendalis (= ALCOCK canal)


List the branches of a. umbilicalis

  • distal part obliterates to lig. umbilicale mediale
  • proximal:
    • aa. vesicales superiores → apex of urinary bladder
    • a. ductus deferentis


List the branches of a. uterina

  • rr. vaginales
  • r. ovaricus anastomoses w/ a. ovarica (from aorta)
  • r. tubarius
  • rr. helicini → uterus


List the branches of a. pudenda interna.

  • a. rectalis inferior → anus, anastomoses w/ a. rectalis media
  • a. perinealis 
    • rr. scrotales/labiales posteriores
  • a. bulbi penis/vestibuli → bulbus of corpus spongiosum penis
  • a. profunda penis/clitoridis → corpora cavernosa
  • a. dorsalis penis/clitoridis → penis clitoris


What is a corona mortis?

corona mortis (= crown of death) exists if anastomosis btw a. obturatoria + a. epigastrica inf. originates entirely from a. epigastrica inf. / a. iliaca ext. 

⇒ used to lead to fatal bleedings in surgeries of inguinal hernias


Where should intramuscular injections in the m. gluteus medius be done?

upper lateral quadrant to avoid accidental intravascular injection


Which venous plexuses are formed by v. iliaca int.?

Clinical relevance?

  • plexus in lesser pelvis
  • plexus venosus rectalis: connection to v. portae (cf. hemorrhages)
  • plexus venosus vesicalis: on fundus of urinary bladder, in connection w/ plexus venosus rectalis + prostaticus/uterinus + vaginalis
  • plexus venosus uterinus + vaginalis surround uterus + vagina
  • plexus venosus prostaticus: incorporates v. dorsalis profunda penis, anastomoses to venous vertebral plexuses
    ⇒ often metastases in vertebral column in case of prostate carcinomas


List the branches of a. iliaca externa.


medial to m. iliopsoas under lig. inguinale to lacuna vasorum

  • a. epigastrica inf.: anastomoses w/ a. epigastrica sup.
  • a. circumflexa ilium profunda: anastomoses w/ r. iliacus of a. iliolumbalis


List the branches of a. epigastrica inf.

  • r. pubicus: branch to symphysis, anastomoses w/ r. pubicus of a. obturatoria
  • a. cremasterica: through canalis inguinals → m. cremaster + coats of testes
  • a. lig. teretis uteri: (only in females) together w/ lig. teres uteri through canalis inguinalis


List the branches of a. thoracica interna.

It is covered by which structures?

covered by fascia endothoracica + m. transversus thoracicus

  • rr. mediastinales: → sup. + ant. inf. mediastinum
  • rr. thymici
  • rr. bronchiales, rr. tracheales
  • a. pericardiophrenica: together w/ n. phrenicus btw pericardium + pleura → diaphragm
  • rr. perforantes → chest musc. 
  • rr. intercostales ant. of intercostal spaces 1-6: anastomose w/ aa. intercostales post.

at level of 6th, 7th rib branch into:

  • a. musculophrenica → intercostal space 7-10 + diaphragm
  • a. epigastrica sup.: through trig. sternocostale to diaphragm, anastomoses w/ a. epigastrica inf. (collateral circulation to aorta)


List the tributaries of v. cava inf.


  • ​vv. hepaticae (dex., intermed., sin., often truncus hepaticus sin.)
  • v. renalis sin. + dex.
    BUT: v. renalis sin. receives the next 3
  • v. suprarenalis dex.
  • v. testicularis/ovarica dex.
  • v. phrenica inf. dex.
  • v. sacralis mediana
  • vv. iliacae communes


Which vessels form the v. cava sup.

collects blood from head, neck, arms, thorax + lumbal region

forms from vv. brachiocephalicae 


Which veins form v. brachiocephalica?

How is the structure called?

  • v. subclavia
  • v. jugularis int./

⇒ angulus venosus


Which vessels drain into v. brachiocephalica?

  • v. thyroidea inf.
  • v. vertebralis
  • vv. throcicae int.
  • + v. intercostalis suprema
  • + vv. from thymus, pericardium, bronchi, trachea, esophagus, intercostal spaces


Which vessels form v. jugularis ext.?

Which vessel drains into it?

Where does it drain into?

on m. sternocleidomastoideus

formed by:

  • v. occipitalis
  • v. auricularis post.


  • v. jugularis ant. (from region around hyoid bone)

​→ v. subclavia/v. jugularis int.


Which vessels drain into v. jugularis int.?

  • v. opthalmica sup.
  • v. facialis
  • plexus pterygoideus
  • vv. pharyngeales
  • v. lingualis
  • v. thyroidea sup./med.
  • v. sternocleidomastoidea


Where does a. carotis branch into a. carotis ext. + int.?

What is important abt that spot?

in trigonum caroticum

here baroreceptors innervated by n. glossopharyngeus 


List all branches of a. carotis ext.


Some Anatomists Like Freaking Out Poor Medical Students

S: superior thyroid a. → thyroid
Aascending pharyngeal a. → pharynx, dura mater
Llingual a. → tongue 
F: facial a. → tuba, lips, ext. nose
Ooccipital a. → dura mater
Pposterior auricular a. → n. facialis
M: maxillary a. → own card
S: superficial temporal a. → parotid, ear, eyes


Since a. maxillaris has A LOT of branches: how can it be subdivided?

  • pars mandibularis (5)
  • pars pterygoidea (4) 
  • pars pterygopalatina (5) 


Which regions are supplied by pars mandibularis of a. maxillaris?

mandible, middle ear, lower jaw, dura mater

  • a. auricularis prof. → mandible
  • a. tympanica ant. → middle ear
  • a. alveolaris inf. → teeth + gingiva
  • a. meningea med. → dura mater


Which regions are supplied by pars pterygoidea of a. maxillaris?

​mm. of mastication, cheeks

  • a. masseterica 
  • aa. temporales ant./post.
  • rr. pterygoidei
  • a. buccalis 


Which regions are supplied by pars pterygopalatina of a. maxillaris?

teeth of upper jaw, palate, nasal cavity

  • a. alveolaris sup. post.
  • a. infraorbitalis
  • a. palatina descendens
  • a. canalis pterygoidei
  • a. sphenopalatina


Where does a. subclavia originate from?

  • left: arcus aorticus
  • right: truncus brachiocephalicus


What are the branches of a. subclavia?

  • a. vertebralis → parts of brain
  • a. thoracica int. 
  • truncus thyrocervicalis
  • truncus costocervicalis


List the branches of truncus thyrocervicalis.

  • a. thyroidea inf.
  • a. cervicalis asc.
  • a. transversa colli
  • r. prof.
  • r. sup.
  • a. suprascapularis



Which branches are given off by truncus costocervicalis?

  • a. intercostalis suprema
  • a. cervicalis profunda


Where do v. azygos and hemiazygos drain into?

Which structure is often also formed?

v. hemiazygos → v. azygos → v. brachiocephalica sin.

often: v. hemiazygos accessoria formed by v. intercostales (can drain into either of theim)


Which vessels drain into v. azygos, hemiazygos resp.?

Also list 2nd generation.

  • vv. mediastinales (vv. oesophageales, bronchiales, pericardiacae)
  • vv. intercostales post. + r. dorsalis esp.
    • r. spinalis (spinal cord)
    • plexus venosus vertebrales ext. (covering vertebrae)