Musculoskeletal and Integumentary Flashcards Preview

Semester 3 FS Exam 4 > Musculoskeletal and Integumentary > Flashcards

Flashcards in Musculoskeletal and Integumentary Deck (31):
1

Bone mass

There is a disturbance in the balance of osteogenesis and osteolysis and absorp/reabsorp with calcium that leads to dec in bone mass

2

Bone growth vs loss

Growth until about 35 and then start slow loss

3

Factors affecting bone aging

1. Need for calcium intake
800 mg young F
1500 mg F over 50
Explained by absorption efficiency of upper GI
2. Hormones

4

Factor affecting bone aging - Hormones

PTH
Calcitonin
Dehydroxycalcified (Vit D3)
Estrogen
Glucocorticoids
GH
Insulin

5

Normal role of physical exercise with bone

Inc stress/strain on skeleton
Inc blood flow
Stimulate bone retention/deposition

6

Aging bone has dec..

Calcium
Circulating levels of Vit D
Reserve to quickly accelerate the production of RBCs when needed
Bone strength

7

Aging of joints -

Osseous outgrowths (osteophytes or bone spurs)
Dec proteoglycans in joints and structural alteration of them that leads to autoimmunity

8

Aging of joints - cartilage

Thicker (except patella)
Dec elasticity
Inc pigmentation
Dec collagen

9

Structural changes in the muscular system

Dec myocytes
Inc pigments, fat, CT
Atrophy in number of fibers
Dec alpha motor neurons
Dec size of motor units
Dec mm mass

10

Functional changes in the muscular system

Dec enzyme concentrations + efficacy
Loss of mm strength - dec 20%
Impaired velocity of contraction and relaxation
Early onset of fatigue

11

What is sarcopenia

Age related decline in lean body mass that affects the functional capacity

12

Prevalence of sarcopenia

30%

13

Sarcopenia M vs F

M experience 2X decline as F (maybe just cuz have more to begin with)

14

Normal aging decline of strength is

10% per decade

15

Causes of sarcopenia

Physical inactivity
Loss of alpha motor neuron input to nerve
Decline in testosterone
Decline in growth hormone
Protein insufficiency

16

Integumentary - aging nails

Slower growth
Dull appearance
Brittle
Color changes from translucent to yellow/opaque
Tips easily fragment
Longitudinal ridges

17

Integumentary - aging of hair

Loss of facial and body hair
Color changes
Dec production of hairs
Individual hairs coarser

18

Integumentary - aging of hair - Color is universal sign of aging - universal graying begins

at 30
40% by 40
Genetic influence

19

Integumentary - aging of hair - Color due to pigment changes

Dec melanin production graying

20

Integumentary - aging of hair - Dec production of hairs
Normal

4-5 year life cycle
Failure to replace hair by follicle 25% males by 30
66% by 60

21

Integumentary - aging of hair - coarser

F = chin/lips more obvious
M = longer hairs in brow, ears, nose

22

Skin changes with aging

Dec sweat glands
Dec sebaceous glands
Dec melanophores
Dec collagen
Thinning of epidermis
Loss of elasticity
Loss of subQ adipose
Thinning of skin
Graying of hair

23

COnsequences of skin changes with aging

Impaired temp regulation
Dry and flaky skin
Skin folds and wrinkles
Aging pallor
Coarser features
Bony appearance

24

Clinical application

Puritis 2/3 of older adults
Bed sores more common
Inc skin cancers
Keratotic nodules on back of hands
Telanglectasis on face
Hyperplasia, leathery skin

25

Why does skin wrinkle

Less water content
Skin thinking
Altered elastin - dec
Less pliable
Damaged collagen
Dec fat

26

What are liver spots

Uneven distribution of melanocytes and melanin
Deposition of aging pigments

27

Why bruise more easily

Loss of sensation
Water loss in skin
Loss of fat
Altered collagen
Less compliant elastin
Loss of BVs
Slow healing
Medications with anticoagulant properties

28

Age effects on metabolism

Dec BMR which leads to limit in physical activity
Dec liver blood flow (40-50%)
- leads to drugs staying in blood longer)

29

Temp regulation with age - net

Dec ability to maintain temp
Altered perception of environmental temp

30

Explanations of temp reg dec

Altered shivering process
Dec mm mass
Dec BMR
Less effective cutaneous vasomotor regulation of blood flow

31

Consequences of altered temp regulation

At risk in temp extremes
Diminished ability to sense abnormal temp and to respond to altered temp