Respiratory System and Aging Flashcards Preview

Semester 3 FS Exam 4 > Respiratory System and Aging > Flashcards

Flashcards in Respiratory System and Aging Deck (17):
1

Pulmonary changes with aging - thorax

Calcification of bronchial and costal cartilage
Wasting of resp. mm

2

Pulmonary changes with aging - thorax - Calcification of bronchial and costal cartilage leads to

Inc stiffness of costovertebral cartilage
Inc rigidity of chest wall
Inc ant post diameter (kyphosis)

3

Effects on the aged resp. system -

Lung - dec alveolar ducts
Thinning and separation of alveolar membrane
Altered cilia

4

Effects on aged resp system - Tinning and separation of alveolar membarne - dec (3) Inc (2)

Dec mucus glands
Dec tissue extensibility
Dec cap network
Inc number and thickness of elastic fibers
Inc fibrosis of pulmonary capillary itnima

5

Effects on aged respiratory system - thorax

Inc resistance to deformation of chest wall
Attemped inc use of diaphragm
Dec tidal volume with exercise
Dec max voluntary ventilation

6

Effects of age on respiratory system - lung

Dec SA for gas exchange
Inc physiologic dead space
Dec lung elastic recoil
Dec ventilatory flow rate
Dec ventilatory distribution
Inc resistance to flow in small airways
Dec ventilation/perfusion ratio

7

Consequences of lung changes

Inc vulnerability to environmental insults
Dec compliance in chest wall and thorax
Dec strength and func of ventilatory mm
Dec expansion of alveolar ducts
Dec compliance of alveolar tissue

8

Consequences of lung changes - Dec compliance in chest wall and thorax - rib cage expansion dec - young vs old

Young - 40% lung volume
Old - 30% lung volume

9

Consequences of lung changes - dec strength and function of ventilatory mm - what percentage of dec in diaphragm strength

25%
Due to denervation and degeneration of motor fibers

10

Resp changes with age
- Resp muscle
- Elasticity of chest wall
- Emptying of lungs
- Rigidity of lung
- Fatiguability
- Max breathing capacity

Weakening
Decreased
Less efficient
Increased
Earlier/Easier
Reduced 60-80%

11

Resp changes in blood gases

Dec PaO2

12

Resp changes - changes in control of ventilation

Dec change in intrinsic control, coordination of CNS centers, responsiveness of respiratory pumps, response in neuromuscular mechanism

13

PaO2
20 yrs
60-65 yrs
90 yrs

90
83
83

14

Regulation of ventilation - older adult

Impaired warning of ventilatory distress
Delayed adaptive response

15

Pulmonary function with exercise
- minute ventilation
- max O2 consumpton

Increased
Decreased

16

Changes in lung volumes/spirometry parameters - diffusion capacity dec due to

Loss of alveolar SA in pulmonary vasculature
Thickening of intima and fibrous changes
Possible changes in RBC membrane

17

Response with exercise

Early shift from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism
Inc stiffness of thoracic pump