Pharmacology and the Aged Flashcards Preview

Semester 3 FS Exam 4 > Pharmacology and the Aged > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pharmacology and the Aged Deck (39):
1

Those over the age of 65 make up what percentage of all prescriptions

30-35%

2

Avg number of meds for someone in LTF

8

3

Drug

Substance that alters cell function

4

Side effect

Unwanted effects of drug

5

Effect

Action of drug
What the drug does

6

Adverse drug reaction

Undesirable or unwanted effect of drug

7

Compliance

Taking drug as directed

8

Pharmacodynamics

Study of affect of drugs at the target site (usually receptor)

9

Pharmacokinetics

Study of time course of drug and metabolite levels in body fluids during absoprtion, distribuion, metablism, and elimination of drug

10

Polypharmacy

Taking a number of drug

11

How do normal age changes affect pharmacology

Altered drug deposition and metabolism
Dec lean body mass
Inc body fat
Reduction in liver function
Dec in proteins in blood stream
Altered absorption
Reduces stomach acid
Reduces GI motility

12

Altered Drug disposition and metabolism

Dec body weight
Dec lean body mass
Inc body fat
Dec total body water
Dec plasma albumin
Redstribution of regional blood flow

13

Dec lean body mass - effect

There are fewer cells per unit of body weigth

14

Dec lean body mass - importance

Drug dosages calculated on presumption of X number of cells per unit of body weigth

15

Dec lean body mass - consequences

More drug per cell - more side effects, more toxicity, overdose
Need to recalculate dose for older adultd

16

Significance of inc body fat

Larger volume for fat soluble drugs to distribute
Prolongs duration of some drugs

17

Liver function - aging dec

The number of liver cells
Blood flow to the liver
Enzymes to break down drug

18

COnsequences of liver function change

Drugs remain active for longer period of time
Inc drug concentration in blood

19

Role of proteins

Bind and serve as a store
Prevent drug from being metabolized

20

Concentration of proteins in aged adult

dec 15-25%

21

Consequences of changes in proteins in blood stream

More free drug leads to more activity

22

Concern of dec proteins in blood

Illness and poor nutrition will worse problem

23

Altered absorption

Inc gastric pH
Dec splanchnic blood flow
Dec GI mobility
Delayed gastric emptying
Altered active transport

24

Consequences of dec stomach acid

Reduced bioavailability of some tablets/capsules
Absoprtion of some drugs requires acid media
Altered rate of stomach emptying
Reduced drug absoprtion

25

Consequences of reduction in GI motility

Less mixing of contents
Less exposing the drug to intestinal wall for absorption

26

Net effect of reduction in GI motility

Delayed absoprtion
Irritating drugs do more damage

27

Adverse drug reaction

Any undesirable or unintended drug effect
Includes side effects
Toxicity
Allergic reaction

28

Classification of types of ADRs

ABCDE
Augmented drug effects
Bizarre effects
Chronic effects
Delayed effects
End ot tx effects

29

Augmented drug effects

Dose related effects of drug
Bleeding due to anticoagulants

30

Bizarre effects

Uncommon, unpredictable effects
Anaphylaxis due to penicillin

31

Chronic effecs

Due to prolonged treatment (many doses)
Colic dysfunction due to laxatives

32

Delayed effects

Adverse effect not related to initial reason for drug
Second type of cancers after therapy for initial cancer

33

End of tx effects

Effects occur when drug is stopped

34

Causes of drug toxicity in older adults - provider causes

Duplication of medications
Imprecise directions
Poor drug history

35

Causes of drug toxicity in older adults - patient causes

Poor self selection of OTC drugs
Poor drug hx
Sensory and mental deficits
Drug induced confusion
Lack of knowledge drugs/effects/aging

36

Causes of drug toxicity in older adults - pharmacy causes

Automatic refills
Error
No medication/interaction profile

37

Guidelines for safety with medications for older adults

Make sure they know the meds they are on
Make sure they are taking prescribed amount
Refer on if you or pt recognizes side effects
Encourage pt to see pharmacist to review meds

38

Causes for lack of compliance

Inability to afford
Inability to adhere to complicated regimen
Cognitive, funct, sens impairment
Lack of knowldege
Denial of illness
Unclear instructions
Inappropriate dosage form
Feel better without med
Use of alcohol

39

Compliance aids

Calendars
Charts
Blister packs
Pill boxes
Programmable alarm devices
Caregiver training
Home health aides