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Semester 3 FS Exam 4 > Theories of Aging > Flashcards

Flashcards in Theories of Aging Deck (57):
1

Aging

Gradual and spontaneous changes that occur in maturation from infant to young adult - these changes create a normal physiologic decline seen in middle and late adulthood

2

Senescence

To grow old
The way scientists approach changes associated with aging
A degenerative process

3

Most health care dollars are spent on

managing diseases
5% healthcare dollars --> preventative care in 2015

4

Ageism

Can be seen as a process of systematic stereotyping of and discrimination against people because they are old

5

Old people are stereotypically chategorized as

Senile, rigid in thought and manner, old fashioned in morality and skills

6

Primary Aging

Aging that is independent of disease and environmental influences (intrinsic aging)
Determined by genetics

7

Secondary Aging

Aging superimposed upon genetic environment (extrinsic aging)
Changes due to environment and disease
May be modified

8

Aging (1/3..)

1/3 disease + 1/3 disuse + 1/3 normal aging

9

Aging - decreased

homeostatic reserve
less ability to restore baseline function
major loss leads to immobility

10

Aging - dec homeostatic reserve - consequences

inc dependence
inc risk of falls
inc types of aging

11

Disease vs. Normal aging (5) - Peola Timiras

1. Aging is universal process shared by all living organisms
2. Aging is intrinsic, dependent on genetic factors where disease is intrinsic or extrinsic
3. Aging is always progressive where disease may progress or regress
4. Aging is always deleterious whereas disease is occasionally deleterious
5. Aging is irreversible where disease can be treated

12

Age related changes

Changes associated with aging through adulthood into age are gradual

13

Adults and aging rate
Factors impact aging

Adults age at different rates
Unique combination for each individual of biological, social, economic, psychological factors impacting aging

14

Factors affecting rate of aging - Biological changes

Changes in anatomy/physiology
Usually first to be noticed
Used to stereotype person as old

15

Theories of aging

No universally accepted theory

16

2 categories of aging theories

Programmed theories - aging as internal biological clock
Error theories - aging is result of internal and external assaults that damage cells or organs so they can no longer function properly

17

Programmed theories

Hayflick limit theory
Telomere theory
Endocrine/Hormonal Theory
Immunologic Theory

18

Hayflick Limit Theory

Aging is intrinsic - cells can only divide so many times and then shut off/die
Accumulation of improper functioning cells are responsible for aging
Dec DNA

19

Telomeric Theory

Cells keep track of their age through shortening of telomeres
Creates gap where end of chromosome can't be copied
Telomere shortening alters expression of other genes which enables detrimental genes to become active

20

Telomeric theory - shorted telomere are found in

Atherosclerosis
Heart disease
Hepatitis
Cirhosis
Cancer - cancer cells have telomerase which can fill the gaps so they continue to develop and divide

21

Endocrine/Hormone Theory

Functional decrements in neurons and their associated hormones impact aging - effect growth, metabolism, temp, inflammation, and stress

22

Immunologic Theory

Decline in immune system
Inc vulnerability to disease, aging, death
Immune system is coded overtime to erode

23

Error theories

Somatic Mutation theory
Wear and Tear theory
Rate of Living theory
Cross Linking
Free Radical

24

Somatic Mutation Theory

Accumulation of harmful factors injure genes
Environmental factors like radiation, toxic chemicals, free radicals

25

Wear and Tear Theory

Cells, organs and tissues gradually wear out over continued use
Overcomes the bodies capacity for maintenance and repair
Viewed as result of aging, not the cause of it

26

Rate of living theory

Inverse correlation between basal metabolic rate and longevity
The greater the basal metabolic rate, the shorter the life span

27

Cross linking

The accumulation of cross linked proteins damage cells and tissues
Slows down the bodily processes and functions
Leads to loss of flexibility of CT, microvascular changes in arteries, lungs, tendons

28

Free radical theory

any atom or molecule that has an unpaired electron in the outer ring
Damages DNA, proteins, Lipids
Theory is that the FR grabs an electron from any molecule in the vicinity and damages the other molecule

29

What can we do - skin aging

Be careful with sun exposure and wear sunscreen

30

What can we do - Osteoporosis

Weight bearing, exercise, diet

31

What can we do - Serum cholesterol

Diet, weight control, exercise

32

What can we do - Glucose tolerance

Weight control, exercise, diet

33

What can we do - Memory

Training, practice

34

What can we do - Intelligence tests

Training, practice

35

What can we do - Social ability

Practice

36

What can we do - Cardiac reserve

Exercise, nonsmokign

37

What can we do - Systolic BP

Limit salt, weight control, exercise

38

What can we do - Physical endurance

Exercise, weight control

39

What can we do - Physical strength

Exercise

40

What can we do - Pulmonary reserve

Exercise, nonsmoking

41

What can we do - Reaction time

Training, practice

42

What can we do - Dental decay

Prophylaxis, diet

43

Unique aspects of the older person

Have diff types and numbers of diseases
Have altered reactions to disease
Have altered response to tx
Have unique qualities

44

Diff types and numbers of diseases

No single dx
Accumulation of non-lethal dx
Serious degenerative dx
Coexistence of normal age changes with pathology

45

Aged have altered reactions to disease

Altered presentation of dx - tendon reflexes, pain perception
Inc mental disturbance (what do you expect at my age)
Inc mortality (inability to maintain homeostasis)

46

Altered presentations

Presentation in wrong system
Depression without sadness
Mass without sx
Silent infection
Silent surgical abdomen
MI without chest pain
Non-dyspneic pulmonary edema
Nonspecific presentations
Brain altered functioning

47

Explanation for altered presentation in aged

Altered central processing
Inc negativity
Fear of illness, tx, hospitalization, loss of ind
Fear promotes denial
Ignorance of body changes
Loss of peripheral sens
Depression

48

Factors influencing presentation of disease

Misconception of what is normal aging
Diff physiologic response to disease
Effect of multiple chronic diseases
Polypharmacy

49

Why doesn't aged adult seek medical help

Fear of hospitalization
Fear of unpleasant investigations
Fear of treatment
Risk of being put in res. care
Lack of info
Imagining sx not amendable to tx
Low health expectations
Failure to recognize the problem

50

Aged adult has altered response to treatments

Inc vulnerability to drug effects
Dec ability to compensate
Tx interactions
Drug effects
Aging complicates acute and chronic illness

51

Focus of care for the aged adult - Management of disability -

Focus on function and then diagnosis
Care before cure
Independence before freedom from disease
Interdisciplinary

52

Iatrogenesis

Harm to patient caused by professional treatment

53

Major causes of iatrogenesis

Relocation which contributes to disruption, confusion, falling, anorexia, malnutrition
Drugs
Hospitalization

54

Causes of increased dependence

Geriatric syndromes - common final pathways manifest in multi organ system failure
Confusion, falls, dizziness, immobility, incontinence, fatigue, weight loss, dementia, delirium, hearing or visual impairment...

55

Red flags in geriatric care

Functional decline
Loss of appetite
Mood changes
Social withdrawal
Failure to thrive

56

Acute illness in aged adult

Aging itself
Atypical presentation of dx
Affect of patient
Advance directives
Bleeding
Baseline
Balance
Bowel and bladder

57

Acute illness in aged adult can be caused by

Change
Confusion
Complications as presenting feature
Caregivers
Dx
Drugs
Dehydration
Diarrhea
Discharge from hospital