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Semester 3 FS Exam 4 > System Changes > Flashcards

Flashcards in System Changes Deck (58):
1

Erythrocytes

Flexible disk shaped cells filled with hemoglobin

2

What do erythrocytes do

Transport oxygen and carbon dioxide through blood stream

3

Erythrocytes - life span

120 days
Produced at rate of 2 million per second

4

RBC changes

Dec cell size
Inc cell density (dec lipid content)
Dec enzymes
Less reversible deforamation
Loss of elasticity

5

RBC changes - concerns for geriatrics

Anemia
- not a single disease
- affects other systems
- measured by hemoglobin and hematocrit
Will fatigue easily and look a little pale

6

Most common forms of anemia

Hypoproliferative anemia
Ineffective erythropoiesis

7

Hypoproliferative anemia

Lower rate of RBC production in bone marrow and will impact the hematocrit

8

Common causes of hypoproliferative anemia

Low iron
Inflammation

9

Most common forms of anemia - Ineffective erythropoiesis

Damage to the RBC after it leaves the bone marrow
Vit B 12 deficiency

10

Net effect of changes in RBCs

Dec toelrance of exercise
Stress on tissue and organs
Dec cognition

11

To be immune from something is to be

protected from it

12

Development of immunity requires

one to be exposed, results in mild illness, recover and then when exposed again have immunological memory

13

Two processes to develop immunological memory

Humoral mediated
Cell mediated

14

Humoral mediated memory

Antibodies circulate through the blood (humor)
Bind foreign organism
Helper T lymphocyte cells activate B cells - produce memory for immunity
Diminishes with age

15

Cell mediated memory

Antigen bind to T cells
Cytotoxins are produced
Destroy antigens
Diminish with age

16

Age related decline in immune system

Infections
Cancer
Autoimmune diseases

17

Infectious disease ex

Influenza
Pneumonia
Tuberculosis
Meningitis
UTI

18

Infectious diseases

Deficiencies in both humoral and cell mediated responses
Decline in helper t cell function
Destruction of B cell clones

19

Net effect with infectious disease

Dec ability to generate antibody responses to certain infections

20

- Inc in

Leukemia
Cancer of lung, breast, prostate, stomach and pancreas
Due to dec in inmune system

21

Autoimmune diseases

Body loses the ability to distinguish self from nonself

22

Common autoimmune diseases

RA
Hashimotos thyroiditis
Lupus
Chronic Hepatitis

23

Autoimmune disease - due to

Degredation of the thymus gland and inability to destroy self harming t cells

24

Digestive system

Attached to dig system is exocrine glands, pancreas, liver - each secrete substances to aid with digestion
Aging by itself has minimal effect

25

Changes in the digestive system - changes in mouth

Dentation
Osteoporotic changes in jaw
Recession of gums
Inc changes of dental caries
Dysphagia
Enamel wears down
Dec salivary gladns

26

Changes in digestive system - esophagus

Dec rate of cell turnover (erosion)
Dec peristaltic movements
Dec motor control
Inc reflux

27

Net effect - esophagus

Delayed emptying (pain)
Dilation

28

Stomach

Rate of gastric acis secretion dec
Inc in peptic ulcers and gastritis
Inc in pylori
Can result in Fe deficiency anemia

29

___ cancer is most common in elderly

Stomach
Of stomach cancer - it is most popular in the elderly

30

Small intestine

Cont digestion with help of secretions
Little effect from age

31

Liver

produces bile
detoxity foreign and dangerous chemicals
Break down medications - diminishes with age

32

Bile is stored in

Gall bladder

33

Bile is required to

breakdown fats in chyme

34

Large intestines

Diverticulosis
Dec motility
Fecal incontinence
Peritonitis
Colon cancer

35

Diverticulosis

Intestinal lining has herniated through intestinal wall
Diet low in fiber

36

Net effect of digestive system - motility

Dec # of ganglion cells
In emptying time
Inc freq non-peristatic contractions
Dec amplitude of muscle contraction
Impaired relaxation

37

Net effect of digestive system - absorption

Most substances, absorbed normally to 60-70yo and then changes
Changes due to dec SA (person getting smaller)

38

Genitourinary system - kidney func

Excrete waste from body
Maintain stability of fluid compartments of body - plasma and interstitial fluid

39

Renal system - anatomical changes

Dec kidney mass
Dec # of glomeruli
Inc # of abdnormal glomeruli
Dec length and volume of proximal tubule
Dec mitochrondria
Loss of muscle from arteries

40

Renal system - number of glomeruli Age 25 and 85

25 = 1 miliion nephrons per kidney
85 = dec by 30-40%

41

Functional changes - renal system

Dec GFR 50% by age 75
De % CO to kidney (receives 20% of CO)
Dec concentrating/diluting urine and elimating waste in distal tube
Funct nephrons - altered threshold for glucose

42

Clinical relevance - renal system chagnes

Impaired maitenence of fluid status when stressed
Impaired elimination of drugs

43

Effects of drugs on kidneys - NSAIDs

Affect hormonal regulation of kidney
Block prostaglandins
Predisposes them to acute renal failure and chronic damage

44

Serum creatinine

Clinical measure of renal function
Needs to be measured and interpreted when giving drugs

45

Bladder function changes

Dec ability to store urine
Inc frequency of voiding
Inc residual volume
Inc frequency of uninhibited contractions
Delayed sensation of filling

46

Older urinary tract prone to

Inc bacterial infections
Inc kidney stones
Inc renal failure

47

Acute failure - bladder - due to

Dehydration
Low fluid intake
Post injury or Post surgery

48

Chronic failure - bladder -

Inc frequency of incontinence

49

Problems with urinary tract are often related to

Environmental factors
Life style
IT IS PREVENTABLE

50

Reversible causes of incontinence

DRIP
D = delirium
R = restricted mobility, rentention
I = infection, inflammation, impactation
P = polyuria, pharmaceuticals

51

Endocrine system

Collection of glands that secrete chemical messengers into blood stream

52

Endocrine system - hierarchical control

Starting with hypothalamus releasing hormones to pituitary gland - releasing hormones to thyroid, adrenal gland and gonads

53

Endocrine - aging creates

inadequate responses to the hormones

54

Cortisol

Stress hormone
Duty is to mobilize the bodys energy reserve

55

Prolonged elevation of cortisol can lead to

diabetes, hyperglycemia, hypertension, and immunosupression

56

Pancreas

Insulin and glucagon
Deficient insulin action (NIDDM)
27% over 65 have NIDDM

57

Some good attributes fro successful aging

Adaptible
Coping ability
Minimal stress
Emotional gratification
Pos life experiences
Be active
Vit D

58

Keys to successful aging

Low risk disease
High mental func
High physical func
Active engagement with life