NBME 15 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in NBME 15 Deck (32):
1

Typical Antipsychotics

Haloperidol, trifluoperazine, fluphenazine, thioridazine, chlorpromazine (haloperidol + “-azines”).

2

Atypical antipsychotics

Olanzapine, clozapine, quetiapine, risperidone, aripiprazole, ziprasidone. *DOC for schizophrenia

3

Lithium

bipolar and SIADH

4

Brain hearing areas

5

Prader Willi

Maternal imprinting: gene from mom is normally silent and Paternal gene is deleted/ mutated. Results in hyperphagia (need to restrict their food), obesity, intellectual disability, hypogonadism, and hypotonia. 

25% of cases due to maternal uniparental disomy (two maternally imprinted genes are received; no paternal gene received). 

6

Angelman

Paternal imprinting: gene from dad is normally silent and Maternal gene is deleted/mutated. Results in inappropriate laughter (“happy puppet”), seizures, ataxia, and severe intellectual disability. 

5% of cases due to paternal uniparental disomy (two paternally imprinted genes are received; no maternal gene received). 

 

7

Guy with epigastric cramps, relieved by eating. Smokes, drinks coffee, has H. pylori.  Remove H. pylori. What modification would prevent these symptoms again?

Decreased smoking

8

EPO

9

Slipped-strand

Add 1 base

10

Acetominophen OD causes:

Depleted glutathione

11

Heme synthesis

12

Osteoporosis activity levels:

OBL: decreased

RANK-L: increased

OCL: increased

13

REVIEW ALL OF GLUCOSE SHIT

14

Cholesterol metabolism

Watch this video:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=97uiV4RiSAY

15

Oseltamivir, zanamivir 

MECHANISM Inhibit influenza neuraminidase􏰂􏰀release of progeny virus.

CLINICAL USE Treatment and prevention of both influenza A and B. 

16

NF-Kb path

TNF-a activates IKB

IKB gets phosphorylated

Releases NFKB

NFKB to nucleus 

17

EBV cancers

Burkitt lymphoma, Hodgkin lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, 1° CNS lymphoma (in immunocompromised patients) 

18

Amoxicillin, ampicillin resistance mechanism

Penicillinase in bacteria (a type of β-lactamase) cleaves β-lactam ring. 

19

Supraspinatus

(suprascapular nerve)—

abducts arm initially (before the action of the deltoid); most common rotator cuff injury, assessed by “empty/full can” test. 

20

All pharyngeal arch stuff

21

Salmonella and Shigella antibiotic effects

Salmonella: prolong infection

Shigella: shorten duration

22

Normal heart weight

23

VZV dormant on:

Sensory neurons

24

Giving blood to immunodeficient patients (i.e. SCID)

Irradiated packed RBCs

25

thymocyte

T cell progenitors

26

congenital neutropenia

All values look normal... may seem ot increase.... but the point is neutrophils at low %age of lymphocytes.....

27

Anti-cholinesterase intoxication (i.e. pesticides). 1st step:

Atropine

(can give pralidoxime after)

28

Shock

29

burnt almonds

cyanide poisoning

30

Wilms tumour

hypervascular

Most common renal malignancy of early childhood (ages 2–4). Contains embryonic glomerular structures. Presents with large, palpable, unilateral flank mass A and/or hematuria.

“Loss of function” mutations of tumor suppressor genes WT1 or WT2 on chromosome 11. May be part of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (Wilms tumor, macroglossia, organomegaly,

hemihypertrophy) or WAGR complex: Wilms tumor, Aniridia, Genitourinary malformation, mental Retardation (intellectual disability). 

31

external hemorrhoids

pain but dont bleed

32

imatinib

Tyrosine kinase inhibitor of BCR-ABL (Philadelphia chromosome fusion gene in CML) and c-kit (common in GI stromal tumors). 

CML and GI stromal tumours

Toxicity = fluid retention