Flashcards in Shit - Resp UWorld Deck (40):
Exercise on arterial and venous values
Arterial normal; venous altered
CTFR mutation causes
altered post-translational processing of ATP-bincdin-cassette transmembrane Cl- transporter
Cheyne-Stokes causes and patters
Neuro (stroke, brain tumour, TBI)
Delayed response and increased sensitivity to PCO2
Abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea; seizures (high M+M), arrhythmia (Rx = b-blockers)
why does hyperventilation cause dizziness?
Decreased PCO2 so body thinks you have high PO2 so cerebral vessels constrict in auto regulation to prevent "intracranial HTN". VC decreases BF causing dizziness, blurred vision, weakness
MOA chronic bronchitis vs. emphysema
CB = narrowed airways, less air thru. Emph = dilates alveoli; decreased ability of deoxygenated blood in vessels to contact the air in the alveoli
Dyspnea with dry cough, insidious, sub pleural cysts, restrictive pattern =
Idiopathic/usual progressive pulmonary fibrosis
honeycomb lung =
indiopathic/usual progressive pulmonary fibrosis
What are mycelia acids
Long, branched, saturated FAs
true vs false vocal cord linings
true = start squam. false (and vestibule) = respiratory.
drug that needs activation by catalase-peroxidase
where is rRNA transcribed, and by what?
Nucelolus; RNA pol-I
aspiration pneumonia via what (where from body and bugs)
fusobacterium, peptostreptococcus, bacteroides
eggshell calcifications and birefringent crystals
Macrophages full of carbon
Neurotoxicity (peripheral neuropathy (rx by B6), hepatotoxicity, sideroblastic anemia, SLE-like
Quitting smoking drugs
Bupropion, varenicline (partial agonist)
tissue destruction in MTB mediated by:
Probability of kid getting AR disease =
Parent carrier % x parent carrier % x 1/4
Baro-R vs chemo-Rs: names and what they respond to
Aortic arch and carotid sinus = BP
Carotid body and aortic body = O2 (CO2, H+)
Medulla = CO2 (via H+/pH)
= stretch receptors; prevent lung over-inflation
what causes pus to be green?
Myeloperoxidase from neutrophil azurophilic granules
MAC (vs MTB): s/s, host, prophylaxis
s/s = like TB, but also hits reticuloendothelial system so anemia, hepatosplenomegally, high LDH, high ALP. Also grows best @41C (MTB doesn't).
Host = HIV CD4
Nerve near piriform recess
internal branch of superior laryngeal n = afferent of gag reflex
150 - PaCO2/0.8
Why would a kid with CF present with signs of hedydration?
Excessive sweating, leads to SODIUM loss (not water), which causes an intravascular volume contraction
MTB drugs that works at acidic pH?
Pyrazinamide: works in INTRAcellular (within macrophage)) MTB, because it works best in acidic environments like the phago-lysosome
where is airflow resistance highest in the lungs and why
sections 2-5 because of turbulent flow [so resistance increases then drastically decreases as you do down the lung divisions]
neutrophil chemotaxis via:
C5a, LTB4, IL-8, 5-HETE (LT precursor)
collapse of lung (can be partial, i.e. ARDS)
Pancoast tumour vs. SVC syndrome
Pancoast has SVC syndrome as a component, but also has horners and shoulder pain and hoarseness due to apical location.
SVC syndrome can occur with a mediastinal mass, thus blocks SVC but is NOT found in apex so no horners or shoulder pain. MCC = lung cancer and NHL
long thin microvilli with lots of tonofilaments
pathophysiology of high ESR
Injury --> neutrophils and macrophages ---> release TNF-a, IL-1, IL-6 -> cause liver to release acute phase reactants --> one of them is fibrinogen --> RBC rouleaux --> faster sedimentation than normal (individual) RBCs
Pancoast tumour pain dermatomes
C8, T1, T2
size of particles (URT vs cilia vs dust cells)
URT = 10-15 nm.
cilia = 2.5-10nm.
LTs in asthma
C4, D4, E4
Scleroderma + CREST and lung problems
pulmonary arterioles damages --> pulmonary HTN, loud S2 (increased back pressure on pull valve), and signs of RHF
Capillary wedge pressure in ARDS
NORMAL! Non-cariogenic cause of pulmonary edema
Compliance in ARDS