NBS Physiology- Neurophysiology Flashcards Preview

B2 > NBS Physiology- Neurophysiology > Flashcards

Flashcards in NBS Physiology- Neurophysiology Deck (87):
1

Which of the following is NOT another name for the cell body?
A. Soma
B. Perikaryon
C. Dendrite
D. Karyon

C
Dendrite

the others all are

2

Myelin would:
A. Decrease the speed of impulse conduction
B. Increase the speed of impulse conduction
C. Keep the conduction at same speed

B

3

What is another name for the Axon?
A. Endoneural tube
B. Karyon
C. Telodendria
D. Perikaryon

A

4

What is the normal millivolt threshold level during depolarization?
A.-30mV
B. 0mV
C. -50mV
D. -90mV

C
-50 to -55mV

5

How is sodium brought into the cell during the depolarization stage?
A. Active transport
B. Carrier mediated transport
C. Facilitated diffusion
D. Passive diffusion

C
Facilitated Diffusion

6

During Depolarization, sodium gates:
A. Close
B Open

open

7

Which of the following best describes the Depolarization stage?
A. Efflux of Potassium
B. Ascending Phase
C. Inside membrane less positive
D. Membrane potential towards resting

B

8

Is an impulse more likely in the depolarization or repolarization stage?

Depolarizatoin

9

During the resting state before an AP begins, what would your membrane polarization level be?
A. +30mV
B. -55mV
C. -90 mV
D. O mV

C
-90mV is your RMP

10

During the Depolarization stage, there is a influx of _______ bringing the membrane towards a more _______ state.
A. Sodium, Positive
B. Potassium, Negative
C. Sodium, Negative
D. Potassium, Positive

A

11

The repolarization stage occurs ____________ of a second.
A. 1,000ths
B. 10,000ths
C. 100,000ths
D. 10ths

B
10,000ths

12

When there is a rapid diffusion of K+ to the exterior the membrane potential would:
A. Return towards Resting
B. Stop at -50mV
C. Stay the same
D. Become more positive

A
Repo brings it back towards resting membrane potential which is represented by -90mV

13

Which of the following best describes the Repolarizatoin phase?
A. Impulse is likely to occur
B. Sodium gates open
C. Inside membrane becomes less positive
D. Ascending Phase

C

14

Which voltage-gated sodium gate is inside the channel and closes more slowly?
A. Inactivation Gate
B. Activation Gate

A

15

Which voltage-gated sodium gate is outside the channel and around -70 to -50mV flips open to allow sodium influx?
A. Inactivation Gate
B. Activation Gate

B

16

T/F: The inactivation gate will not re-open until membrane potential is close to or at resting membrane potential level?

True

17

This represents the most synapses occurring:
A. Axokaryon
B. Axodendritic
C. Axosomatic
D. Axonaxonic

B
Axodendritic

18

What are the tunnels between the cytosol of two cells in the gap junction called?
A. Transmissioners
B. Connaxons
C. Cleft vesicles
D. Connexons

D

19

Which of the following best represents a synaptic delay during a chemical synapse?
A. 5 m/sec
B. 1.5 m/sec
C. 0.5 m/sec
D. 0.10 m/sec

C

0.5m/sec

20

T/F: Only synaptic end-bulbs of postsynaptic neurons release Neurotransmitters

F
Presynaptic

21

Which of the following is NOT an excitatory small NT?
A. Nitric Oxide
B. Glycine
C. Glutamate
D. Norepinephrine

B

glycine=inhibitory

22

This excitatory NT diffuses quickly and targets the brain?
A. Nitric Oxide
B. Glycine
C. Glutamate
D. Norepinephrine

A

N.O.

23

This inhibitory NT is commonly involved with parkinsons disease and the substania nigra?
A. Acetylcholine
B. Dopamine
C. GABA
D. Sertonin

B

Dopamine

24

Which of the following is not an inhibitory NT?
A. Glycine
B. GABA
C. Acetylcholine
D. Glutamate

D
Glutamate

25

Acetylcholine deals directly with the:
A. Spinal cord
B. CNS
C. Motor cortex
D. Cerebral cortex

C
Motor cortex

26

Which area is not influenced by GABA?
A. Spinal Cord
B. Substania nigra
C. Cerebellum
D. Basal Ganglia

B

27

Summation is best described by:
A. 100,000-1,000,000 synapses received
B. 1,000-10,000 synapses received
C. 10,000-100,000 synapses received
D. 100-1,000 synapses received

B

28

This is best described by NT released via a single presynaptic bulb and fires two or more times:
A. Temporal summation
B. Spatial summation

A
Temporal summation (2x)

29

Multiple sclerosis, Posteriolateral sclerosis and Amylotrophic Lateral sclerosis are all disease that deal with degradation of:
A. Dopamine receptors
B. Red blood cells
C. Proteins
D. Myelin

D
Myelin

30

Saltatory conduction is carried out by:
A. Degrading myelin
B. Nodes of Ranvier
C. Efflux of K+
D. Ascending Phase below -90mV

B

31

What kind of receptors deal with pain perception:
A. Mechanoreceptors
B. Colinergic
C. Nociceptors
D. Chemoreceptors

C
Nociceptors

32

Which of the following would have the greatest concentration of nociceptors:
A. Trunk
B. Finger tips
C. Upper arm
D. Buttocks

B
Finger tips

33

These multibranched, encapsulated mechanoreceptors help with temperature perception within 2-5 degrees and pressure?
A. End bulbs of Krause
B. Muscle spindles
C. Ruffini corpuscles
D. Golgi tendon organs

C
Ruffini corpuscles

34

The end bulbs of Krause function as:
A. Nociceptors for pressure
B. Mechanoreceptors for pressure
C. Chemoreceptors for temperature
D. Mechanoreceptors for pressure

D

35

Algesia is the term for:
A. Demyelination
B. Pain
C. Pressure
D. loss of sensation

B
Pain

36

When Merkels discs are grouped together they are termed:
A. Iggo Dome receptors
B. Pacinian Corpuscles
C. Golgi tendon Organs
D. Corpuscles of Ruffini

A

IGGy merked that beat

37

These are touch receptors that help to discriminate with fine touch in the dorsal columns. They are also located on non-hairy skin and are encapsulated.
A. Pacinian corpuscles
B. Meissners corpuscles
C. Merkels discs
D. Ruffini Corpuscles

B
Meissners corpuscles

38

Are Merkels discs encapsulated or not?

NOT encapsulated

39

Which would best describe Merkels discs:
A. Temperature perception 2-5 degrees
B. Fine touch, Dorsal columns
C. General Touch, Anterior Spinothalamic tract
D. Pressure, vibration, encapsulated

C
General touch, Anterior spinothalamic tract

40

What are also considered to be a "phasic receptor" and a "quick adaptor"?
A. Pacinian corpuscles
B. Meissners corpuscles
C. Merkels discs
D. Ruffini Corpuscles

A
Pacinian Corpuscles

41

Which of the following proprioceptive receptors will prevent excessive tension in a muscle?
A. Ruffini corpuscles
B. Ligamentous capsule
C. Muscle spindles
D. Golgi tendon reflex

D
Golgi will make you drop the box if it will hurt you to hold it longer

42

Muscle spindles deal with:
A. Tension in a muscle
B. Stretch in skeletal muscle
C. Load or weight

B
Spindles= Stretch

43

Which of the following would best describe pacinian corpuscles?
A. Temperature perception 2-5 degrees
B. Fine touch, Dorsal columns
C. General Touch, Anterior Spinothalamic tract
D. Pressure, vibration, encapsulated

D

Pressure, vibration, encapsulated

44

You are out in the woods and a huge bear starts running at you. Your _________ system kicks in and your heart would experience ___________.
A. Sympathetic, bradycardia
B. Sympathetic, mydrasis
C. Parasympathetic, bradycardia
D. Sympathetic, tachycardia

D

tachycardia= Increase heart rate

45

After enjoying a glass of red wine and a relaxing dinner. Your eyes are probably experiencing:
A. Miosis
B. Mydrasis
C. Postganglionic Epinephrine stimulation
D. Tachycardia

A
miosis-constriction of pupil

46

What are the primary receptors for your sympathetics?
A. Cholinergic
B. Adrenergic

B

47

Sympathetic transduction is best described by:
A. long pre, short post
B. Short pre, short post
C. Long pre, long post
D. Short pre, long post

D

Short pre, Long post

48

Which of the following would be released via a postganglionic parasympathetic?
A. Nor Epinephrine
B. Aceytl CoA
C. Acetylcholine
D. Epinephrine

C
ACh

49

T/F: You have decreased G.I. secretions and digesiton. Your sympathetic system is currently firing

True

50

Brochiodialation and mydrasis would occur with ___________ stimulation.
A. Parasympathetic
B. Sympathetic

Sympathetic

*mydrasis= dilations of pupils

51

Would you have deep breaths or shallow breaths with sympathetic stimualtion?

Deep

52

During sympathetic stimulation blood is shunted to which areas:
A. Gastrointestinal tract
B. Distal extremities and kidneys
C. lungs and proximal extremities
D. Mouth and genitalia

C
lungs and proximal extremities

53

Parasympathetics are represented by what cranial nerves and sacral plexus components?
A. CN 3,5,7,9- S1, S2,S3
B. CN 4,9,11,12- S2,S3,S4
C. CN 5,7,9,10- S2, S3,S4
D. CN 3,7,9,10- S2, S3,S4

D

3, 7, 9, 10
S2-S4

54

Sympathetics are represented by:
A. T2-L3
B. T1-L1
C. C6-T6
D. L1-S5

B
T1-L1

55

Many synapses on a single cell describes:
A. Temporal Summation
B. Spatial Summation

B

56

An AP available with increased potential=
A. Relative refractory
B. Absolute refractory

A

57

T/F: An absolute refractory means there is NO AP possible

True

58

During a rapid succession of AP with only a few synapses best describes:
A. Temporal Summation
B. Spatial Summation

Temporal

59

Strychine (poision) binds to and blocks _________ receptors, causes massive tetanic contraction, diaphragm cant relax (cant breath) resulting in death. Normally inhibitory neurons in the spinal cord ________ cells release _________ to prevent excessive muscular contraction

Glycine
Renshaw cells
Glycine

60

Somatosensory deals with the:
A. Occipital Lobe
B. Postcentral gyrus
C. Heschls gyrus
D. Medial temporal lobe

B
Postcentral gyrus

61

The visual cerebral sensory area is:
A. Superior Temporal lobe
B. Occipital lobe
C. Postcentral gyrus
D. Base of postcentral gyrus

B

visual= occipital lobe, striate cortex and calcarine fissure

62

What sensory component would be prevalent in the superior temporal lobe and Heschl's gyrus?
A. Somatosensory
B. Visual
C. Auditory
D. Gustatory

C
Auditory

63

This is our receptive portion of language, and is associated with superior temporal lobe:
A. Somatosensory
B. Gustatory
C. Wernicke's
D. Olfactory

C
Wernicke's

64

If wernick's is our receptive portion of language, what is our expressive portion?
A. Bocas
B. Premotor
C. Brocas
D. Gustatory

Broca

use your boca to broca

Boca=spanish word for mouth

65

The area for our expressive portion of language located in the:
A. Superior temporal lobe
B. Inferior posterior frontal lobe
C. Inferior Anterior temporal lobe
D. Cerebellum

B

66

Which cerebral Sensory area deals with taste sensation?
A. Occipital lobe
B. Superior temporal lobe
C. Medial temporal lobe
D. Base of postcentral gyrus

D
Base of postcentral gyrus

67

What is the sensation of taste called:
A. Gustatory
B. Wernicke
C. Broca
D. Somatosensory

A
Gustatory

68

Which of the following is a cerebral motor area?
A. Occipital lobe
B. Frontal lobe
C. Temporal lobe
D. Parietal lobe

B
Frontal lobe

69

The area anterior to the motor cortex deals with __________?
A. Skilled movements
B. Gross movements
C. Expression of language
D. Hearing

A
skilled movements

this is the premotor area

70

What sensory trait would be processed in the calcarine fissure?
A. Audition
B. Visual
C. Gustation
D. Olfaction

B
Visual

71

The ____________ deals with controlling the ANS and endocrine systems. It also functions to control body temperature, food intake, thirst, rage, agression and helps maintain waking state and sleep.

Hypothalamus

72

The hypothalamus releases ______________ which will help decreased the secretion of insulin and glucagon.

Somatostatin

73

Which area would help with coordination of muscle contractions:
A. Thalamus
B. Cerebral Cortex
C. Cerebellum
D. Hypothalamus

Cerebellum

74

This is a relay center between the cortex and spinal cord, carrying crude sensation:
A. Thalamus
B. Hypothalamus
C. Limbic system
D. Cerebellum

A
Thalamus

75

Which portion of the hypothalamus helps with temperature regulation?
A. Lateral Eminence
B. Superior Eminence
C. Medial Eminence
D. Median Eminene

D
Median Eminence

76

Slurred speech, intention tremor and nystagmus would all be associated with theis area?
A. Thalamus
B. Hypothalamus
C. Limbic system
D. Cerebellum

D
Cerebellum

77

This is responsible for our emotional aspects associated with behaviors:
A. Thalamus
B. Limbic System
C. Midbrain
D. Hypothalamus

B
Limbic system

78

The fornix, hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, amygdala and cingulate gyrus are all part of the:
A. Motor cortex
B. Limbic System
C. Midbrain
D. Hypothalamus

B
Limbic system

79

This midbrain structure deals with the coordination of eyeball movements in response to visual stimuli?
A. Superior Colliculus
B. Pons
C. Reticular formation
D. Inferior colliculus

A
Superior Colliculus

80

This area of the midbrain help coordinate head and trunk auditory stimuli?
A. Superior Colliculus
B. Pons
C. Reticular formation
D. Inferior colliculus

Inferior Colliculus

81

The inferior colliculus is associated with what cranial nerves?
A. 4,6,
B. 3,4
C. 3,7,9,10
D. 5,7,9,10

B
3, 4

82

The pons are associated with which cranial nerves?
A. 3,6,9
B. 7,8,9,10
C. 8,9,10,11,12
D. 5,6,7,8

D
5-8

83

Pneumotaxic and apneustic breathing are controlled by:
A. Spinal Cord
B. Thalamus
C. Pons
D. Midbrain

C
Pons

84

The _________ functions in consciousness and arousal, coordinating swallowing, vomiting, coughing and sneezing

Medulla

85

The medulla is the origin of which cranial nerves?
A. 3,6,9
B. 7,8,9,10
C. 8,9,10,11,12
D. 5,6,7,8

C
8-12

86

What part of the medulla helps maintain equilibrium?
A. Vestibular Nuclei
B. Thalamic Nuclei
C. Broca's area
D. Premotor

A
Vestibular nuclei

87

Lipofuscin are dark spots associated with aging and are products of:
A. Methylation
B. Carboxylation
C. Oxidation
D. Reduction

C
Oxidation