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Flashcards in Neoplasia 2 Deck (23)
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1

Cell-cell connections are lost by the inactivation of ________ through a variety of pathways

E-cadherin

2

Basement membrane and interstitial matrix degradation is mediated by

tumor secreted proteases (Matrix metalloproteinases and cathepsin D, and urokinase plasminogen activator).
-MMP9 Gelatinase (IV collagenase).

3

Proteolytic enzymes also release growth factors into the ECM that are

angiogenic, growth promoting and chemotactic.

4

Staging of cancers is based on the ____ of the primary lesion, its extent of spread to _______, and the presence or absence of blood-borne ________.

size; regional lymph nodes; metastases

5

major staging system currently in use (American Joint Committee on Cancer Staging)

T for primary tumor
N for regional lymph node involvement
M for metastases

6

Clark level

example of Pathologic Reporting of Malignant Melanoma Prognostic Parameters
-histological; based on depth

7

non-cancerous cellular lesions capable of proliferating to produce cellular progeny which, over generations, have a reasonable chance of causing clonal expansion with phenotypic properties of malignancy

Premalignant Lesions

8

examples of Genetic Predisposition

RET gene disorders, MEN syndromes

9

Examples of Acquired microscopic lesions

colon adenoma, bronchogenic squamous metaplasia and intestinal metaplasia of Barrett’s esophagus.

10

neoplastic cells involving the full thickness of an epithelium

Carcinoma in situ

11

Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia (MEN) Syndromes inheritance

Inherited in autosomal dominant pattern with loss of MEN1 tumor suppressor gene (MEN1, chromosome 11) or activating mutations of RET proto-oncogene (MEN 2, chromosome 10)

12

MEN I areas

Pituitary adenoma
Parathyroid hyperplasia/adenoma
Pancreatic islet cell tumor

13

MEN IIa areas

Medullary thyroid carcinoma
Pheochromocytoma
Parathyroid hyperplasia

14

MEN IIb areas

Medullary thyroid carcinoma
Pheochromocytoma
Mucosal neuromas, neurofibromas, ganglioneuromatosis coli
Marfanoid habitus

15

projecting above a mucosal lining

Exophytic:

16

growing inward into a submucosal stroma

Endophytic

17

An exophytic single mass

Polyp

18

An exophytic mass with finger-like fronds (cauliflower-like)

Papilloma

19

High-risk HPVs (types 16 and 18) have been implicated in the genesis of several cancers:

cervical, oropharyngeal and anogenital SCC.

20

Genital warts have low malignant potential and are associated with low-risk HPVs, _________

HPV-6 and HPV-11

21

Mechanism of Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric cancers is multifactorial

Immunologically mediated chronic inflammation
Stimulation of gastric cell proliferation
Production of reactive oxygen species that damage DNA.

22

Infection-->chronic gastritis--> gastric atrophy--> intestinal metaplasia of the lining cells--> dysplasia-->

gastric adenocarcinoma (Occurs in 3% of infected patients.)

23

Contributing factors to Liver Cirrhosis and Carcinoma

viral hepatitis, poor diet, smoking, alcoholism