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Flashcards in Immuno 3 Deck (19)
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1

HIV and AIDS

HIV targets CD4+ T cells
depletion of CD4+ cells characteristic of AIDS

2

Clinical manifestation of HIV and AIDS

Clinically manifests as sore throat, fever, rash, myalgia
Acute, initial infection is followed by a latent infection period with progression destruction of CD4+ T cells contributes to abrogation of lymphoid tissue
Clinically manifests as asymptomatic or persistent lymphadenopathy with fever, fatigue, rash & opportunistic infections (host immune system is beginning to breakdown)

3

diminished oxygen-carrying capacity in blood secondary to a decrease in the number of erythrocytes and/or in the amount of hemoglobin

Anemia

4

anemia with increased RBC destruction

hemolytic anemia

5

normal RBC number

4.2-5.6 (males) 3.8-5 (females) x10^6/ul blood

6

Normal hematocrit (packed red cell volume) is

38-48% (males) & 35-44% (females)

7

MCV(vol of red cells) is measured in femtoliters – ____, RDW(rbc width) is normally ___

81-100 fl;

8

Fe body mass:

2.5g females, 3.5g males, 80% in Hgb

9

Normal Hgb is

13 (males) & 12 (females) g/dL

10

normal WBC count is

5000-10,000 cells/ul

11

Normal platelet numbers between

150,000 – 450,000 platelets/ul

12

As RBC precursors mature beyond the normoblast stage, they extrude their nucleus, converting themselves into ________ with active hemoglobin synthesis

reticulocytes

13

Mild-to-moderate iron deficiency results in _______ (pale), _______ (small) RBCs

hypochromic; microcytic

14

Severe anemia presents as weakness, pallor and may be accompanied by ____ (eat dirt)

pica

15

Hereditary spherocytosis

Hereditary spherocytosis is an autosomal dominant (occasionally autosomal recessive)
Hereditary spherocytosis results from mutations in spectrin-associated proteins - ankyrins
Can have episodic aplastic crises (temporary cessation of red cell production)

16

Hereditary spherocytosis cellular appearance

Howell-jolly body
Anisocytosis: unequal RBC size

17

Sickle Cell Anemia

Most common familial hemolytic anemia
Associated with vascular obstructions promote ischemic events

18

Infectious Anemia

Microorganisms can infect RBCs and result in their lysis (hemolytic anemia).  
Malaria is usually spread by a mosquito vector; have a cyclic division cycle resulting in the synchronous lysis of RBCs & recurrent hemolysis and fever

19

Infectious Anemia-Malaria

In RBCs there is asexual reproduction & differentiation into trophozoites phase & release lyses RBC
Plasmodium ovale, vivax, malarie tend to produce a relatively mild, low-grade hemolytic anemia
Plasmodium falciparum can produce massive hemolysis causing renal failure and death secondary to anemia