soft tiss 1 Flashcards Preview

Path exam 3 > soft tiss 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in soft tiss 1 Deck (21)
Loading flashcards...
1

Bone undergoes constant remodeling Via

RANK/RANKL signaling and circulating levels of PTH, vit D

2

Dysostosis

Aberrant localization/migration of bone precursor (mesenchymal) cells
Results in absence, addition, fusion of bones

3

Dysplasia

Refers to abnormal bone/cartilage growth, but does not lead to neoplastic dysplasia
Inappropriate bone and/or cartilage formation, maintenance, remodeling
Osteodysplasia & chondrodysplasia

4

most common type of dwarfism

Achondroplasia

5

Achondroplasia

Mutations in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 gene prevent tyrosine kinase activity & endochondral ossification
Most frequently inherited as autosomal dominant

6

Osteogenesis imperfecta results from abnormalities in

α1 or α2 chains of type I collagen

7

Osteogenesis imperfecta

Various subtypes with broad range of clinical manifestations, but most are inherited in autosomal dominant fashion
-Often referred to as brittle bone disease

8

Osteopetrosis is caused by

aberrations (reductions) in osteoclast function or osteoclast differentiation

9

Osteopetrosis

-Bone is made, but not remodeled or resorbed
-Most frequent subtypes are autosomal dominant with mild clinical features or autosomal recessive with infantile lethality
-Clinically manifests as frequent bone fractures as well as nerve palsies, recurrent infection, hepatosplenomegaly

10

Metabolic Acquired Bone Disease

-Metabolic bone disease includes abnormalities in the endocrine function of the bone in calcium homeostasis as well as abnormalities of mineral deposition.
-Common metabolic bone diseases include osteomalacia, osteoporosis, osteitis deformans, and hyperparathyroidism.
-Osteomalacia means defective mineralization of newly formed osteoid.
-Osteomalacia can also result from abnormal serum concentrations of calcium and phosphorus in patients with osteodystrophy.

11

Osteoporosis

extremely common disease, most severe in postmenopausal women
-Compression fractures of the vertebrae are very common in osteoporosis.

12

Paget’s Disease (osteitis deformans)

-Abnormality of bony remodeling which results in overall gain of (abnormal) bone.
-Characterized by phases of pronounced resorption (osteolytic stage), then pronounced bone formation (osteoclastic-osteoblastic stage), then loss of cellular activity (osteosclerotic stage)
-Can present as monostotic or polyostotic

13

Hyperparathyroidism

-PTH normally maintains Ca++ homeostasis (increased -bone resorption, increased Ca++ resorption in kidney, increased urinary excretion of P, increased Vit D synthesis)
-Hyperparathyroidism is primary or secondary in nature, promoting osteoclast activity
-Dissecting osteitis
-Severe, prolonged hyperparathyroidism can result in the formation of brown tumors.

14

complete bone fracture

clean break

15

open bone fracture

bone breaks through muscle and CT
-increased risk of infection

16

comminuted bone fracture

shattered

17

displaced bone fracture

have to be pushed back into place

18

pathologic bone fracture

loss of bone material
-underlying bone disease

19

stress bone fracture

microscopic fractures that occur in a bone over time
-ex: runners
-not severe

20

Fractures of normal bone rupture blood vessels & promote clots so that fractures heal with the formation of the _______.

callus

21

Osetomyelitis

Most common forms are: pyogenic osteomyelitis (Staphylococcus aureus) & tuberculous osteomyelitis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
Presence of necrotic bone (sequestrum) at infected site
Reactive woven or lamellar bone can be deposited around the sequestrum called involucrum
-Osteomyelitis is often difficult to cure because of limited blood supply to bone