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Flashcards in soft tiss 3 Deck (14)
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1

Gout

-Accumulation of uric acid crystals in gout
-Recurrent periods of acute arthritis and eventually formation of tophi – aggregates of uric acid crystals
-Peripheral joints are affected most frequently
-Treated with drugs (anti-inflammatory, allopurinol – prevents uric acid formation), lifestyle (weight management), diet (sufficient fluid intake) surgery; can lead to renal failure

2

4 stages of gout:

Asymptomatic hyperuricemia
Acute gouty arthritis (acute inflammatory phase that resolves)
Intercritical gout (‘remission’ phase)
Chronic tophaceous gout (joint destruction)

3

Pseudogout

Accumulation of calcium pyrophosphate crystals in pseudogout
Knees> wrists>elbows>shoulders
>50 yrs, no gender bias
Disease can be monoarticular though multiple joints can be involved

4

Infectious Joint Disease-Lyme disease

is caused by bacterium (Borrelia burgdorferi) transmitted by deer tick bite
Stage 1: lyme disease produces an erythema marginatum skin rash with a "bull's-eye" pattern (red with white center) due to proliferation of spiral bacteria, may be accompanied by fever & flu-like symptoms, resolves in a few weeks
Stage 2: dissemination of bacteria via blood causing secondary skin lesions, lymphadenopathy, joint, muscle (heart), nerve involvement
May find serum anti-Borrelia antibodies
Stage 3: 2-3 yrs after initial infection causes chronic joint arthritis, heart failure, palsy
Mainly affects large joints (knees)
Treated with antibiotics

5

Ganglion cysts

Common on wrist, defend of CT
Not to be confused with carpel tunnel syndrome where median nerve is compressed, presenting with pain, tingling, but little to no swelling

6

Joint tumors

-Tenosynovial giant cell tumor (TGCT) refers to group of benign neoplasms of the synovium
20-40 yrs
-Translocation of collagen 6A3 promoter gene to M-CSF gene resulting in enhanced M-CSF production
-Diffuse TGCT usually affects knee with pain, swelling and reduced mobility, can be aggressive
-Localized TGCT usually presents as a slow growing, painless, solitary mass affecting wrist & finger tendon sheaths

7

Tumors of Adipose Tissue

-Lipomas are benign tumors of adipocytes
- Liposarcoma is a rare malignant adipose tumor arising in deep adipose tissue
-Because they arise in the retroperitoneum, complete surgical excision usually is not technically feasible

8

uncommon response to injury in soft tissue that can mimic a tumor-like condition

Nodular fasciitis
-e.g. plantar fasciitis (localized proliferation of fibroblast-like cells in fascia that grows and then spontaneously involutes/ self-limiting)

9

Fibromatoses

-Uncommon, slow-growing proliferations of fibroblast-like cells with extensive collagen production, tumor-like but do not metastasize
-Grow in a infiltrative fashion into adjacent tissue
-Superficial fibromatoses as exemplified by palmar fibromatoses is a hypocellular fascial fibrotic lesion of the palm of hand or sole of the foot that causes dysfunction of digits
-Deep fibromatoses as exemplified by abdominal fibromatoses (desmoid tumors) are soft tissue masses in the abdomen that may kill by local extension

10

Fibrosarcoma

-Malignant tumors consisting of infiltrative masses of fibroblasts
-Slow-growing, unencapsulated tumors with hemorrhagic and necrotic areas that occur mostly in adults with long latent period

11

inflammatory condition of muscle associated with collagen vascular disease or as a paraneoplastic syndrome

Myositis
--Parasitic myositis can result from ingestion of Trichinella spiralis

12

rupture of muscle cells that can lead to release of myoglobin

Rhabdomyolysis

13

Skeletal Tumors: Rhabdomyosarcoma

-Skeletal muscle tumors are rare, but tumors of smooth muscle are common
-Rhabdomyosarcoma is a malignant sarcoma in childhood (

14

Smooth Muscle Tumors: Leiomyoma & Leiomyosarcoma

-Leiomyomas are benign tumors of smooth muscle
-Leiomyomas are sharply circumscribed
-Leiomyomas are extremely common in the uterine myometrium (fibroids)

-Leiomyosarcomas are the malignant counterparts of leiomyomas