Neoplastic bone disease Flashcards Preview

Pathology > Neoplastic bone disease > Flashcards

Flashcards in Neoplastic bone disease Deck (12):
1

Osteosarcoma: age, bone affected, histology (1), x-ray appearance (2)

  • 0-20yr olds 
  • Knee most common 
  • Histo
    • malignant mesenchymal cells
    • ALP raised 
  • X-ray appearance
    • elevated periosteum - dense layer of vascular tissue enveloping bones (codman's triangle)
    • sunburst appearance (due to periostitis) 

A image thumb
2

Chondrosarcoma: age, histology, x-ray appearance (1)

Cancer derived from cells that produce cartilage, happens in >40yr olds. 

Hist - malignant chondrocytes

x-ray - lytic lesion with fluffly calcification, axial skeleton

3

Ewing's sarcoma: age, bones, histo (3), x-ray (1)

Childhood cancer, mainl in long bones/ pelvis

Histo:

  • sheets of small round cells
  • CD99+
  • T11:22 translocation 

X-ray

  • onion skinning of periosteum 

4

Giant cell tumour (borderline malignancy): F>M, bone, histo (2), x-ray appearance (1) 

Knee epiphysis

  • osteoclast-type multinucleate giant cells
  • on background of spindle/ovoid cells (Soap bubble)
  • X-ray - lytic lesions right up to articular surface 

5

Benign bone tumours: Osteoid osteoma (adolescent) - bone, features (2), histo, x-ray (1)

  • bone - tibia/femur

F - small benign bone forming lesion. Night pain relieved by aspirin

Hist - normal bone

X-ray - Radiolucent nidus with sclerotic rim

6

Benign bone tumours: Osteoma (middle age)

  • bone
  • features (2)
  • histo

  • head & neck affected
  • bony outgrowths attached to normal bone
  • gardner's syndrome - GI polyps + multiple osteomas + epidermoid cysts
  • Histo - normal bone

7

Benign bone tumours: Endochondroma (middle age)

  • bone
  • features (2 syndromes)
  • histo
  • xray - 3

Hands

  • benign tumours of cartilage
  • ollier's syndrome = mutliple enchondromas
  • maffuci's syndrome = multiple enchondromas + haemagniomas

Histo - normal cartilage

X-ray

  • Lytic lesion
  • cotton wool calcification
  • expansile, O ring sign

8

Benign bone tumours: Osteochondroma (= exostosis) <25yr

  • features (3)
  • histo (1)
  • x-ray (1)

  • cartilage capped bony outgrowth
  • diaphyseal aclasis/ hereditary multiple exostoses = short stature + multiple exostoses + bone deformities

Histo - cartilage capped bony outgrowth

X-ray - well define bony protuberance from bone

9

Benign bone tumours: Fibrous dysplasia - middle age F>M

Bone (1), features (2), histo (1), x-ray (2)

  • Femur

F

  • a bit of bone is replaced by fibrous tissue
  • albright syndrome = polyostotic dysplasia + cafe au lait spots + precocious puberty 

Histo - Chinese letters (misshapen bone trabeculae)

X-ray - Soap bubble osteolysis & shepherd's crook deformity 

10

11

Benign bone tumours: Simple bone cyst 

feature, x-ray

Affects humerus or femur

Fluid filled unilocular

x-ray - lytic well defined 

12

Benign bone tumours: Osteoblastoma

x-ray change (1) 

Similar to osteoid osteoma

speckled mineralisation