Urological histopath Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Urological histopath Deck (26):
1

What is the most common causative pathogen in cystitis? And name some others (2)

85% of cystitis due to gram -ve, of which most common E. Coli Others: Strep faecalis, enterobacter, Klebsiella

2

Predisposing factors to cystitis (4)

DM, sexually active, female, bladder calculi, cyclophosphamide associated with haemorrhagic cystitis

3

Clinical features of cystitis (4)

suprapubic pain dysuria frequency fever (low grade)

4

Complications of cystitis(1)

ascending infection causing pyelonephritis

5

Treatment of cystitis

Trimethoprim/ Nitrofurantoin

6

What % of bladder tumours are transitional cell? Ratio M:F?

90% 3:1

A image thumb
7

2 risk factors for transitional cell tumours

smoking

exposure to aromatic amines (plastics & dyes)

8

Clinical features of transitional cell tumours (3)

Painless haematuria,

frequency, urgency

Pyelonephritis/ hydronephrosis if uretal orifice involved

9

Diagnosis of transitional cell tumours

cystoscopy & biopsy

10

Where is SCC especially prevalent?

countries with endemic urinary schistosomiasis

11

What hormone mediates BPH? Which cells are affected?

Mediated by dihydrotestosterone, causes hyperplasia of stromal & epithelial cells of prostate resulting in large nodules

12

Symptoms of BPH (4)

freq,

difficulty urinating,

retention,

overflow dribbling

13

What type of cancer is prostate cancer most commonly?

Adenocarcinoma

14

Risk factors for prostate cancer (4)

age,

FH,

environment/ hormonal exposure,

race

15

Where does prostate cancer spread locally? & haematogenously?

Bladder

Bone

16

How is Prostate cancer graded?

Gleason system - based on degree of differentiation & glandular patterns

17

Diagnosis of prostate cancer?

PSA > 4ng/ml is indicative (also from history & exam)

18

What is the most common type of testicular tumour?

Seminoma (peak age 30s & is radiosensitive)

(originates in germinal epithelium of seminiferous tubules)

19

When can a testicular teratoma occur? When is it regarded as malignant?

Any age.

Malignant when occurs post-puberty

20

Name 3 biological markers for germ cell tumours?

AFP,

HCG,

LDH

21

What is the main clinical feature of a testicular tumour?

painless enlargement

22

If a patient has maldescended testis, where are they most likely to be? And is he at increased risk of testicular cancer?

Inguinal canal (95%) yes 10 times increased risk

23

Name 3 types of renal cell carcinomas

Clear cell (well differentiated) ( a renal cortical tumor typically characterized by malignant epithelial cells with clear cytoplasm )

Papillary carcinoma ( commonest in dialysis associated cystic disease)

Chromophobe renal carcinoma (pale, eosinophilic cells)

24

What are some risk factors for renal cell carcinoma? (5)

CKD,

obestiy,

HTN,

smoking,

unopposed oestrogen

25

Clinical features of renal cell carcinoma (3)

palpable mass, haematuria, costovertebral pain

26

Paraneoplastic syndromes in renal cell carcinoma (3)

polycythaemia, hypercalcemia, Cushing's syndrome