What is the most common causative pathogen in cystitis? And name some others (2)
85% of cystitis due to gram -ve, of which most common E. Coli Others: Strep faecalis, enterobacter, Klebsiella
Predisposing factors to cystitis (4)
DM, sexually active, female, bladder calculi, cyclophosphamide associated with haemorrhagic cystitis
Clinical features of cystitis (4)
suprapubic pain dysuria frequency fever (low grade)
Complications of cystitis(1)
ascending infection causing pyelonephritis
Treatment of cystitis
What % of bladder tumours are transitional cell? Ratio M:F?
2 risk factors for transitional cell tumours
exposure to aromatic amines (plastics & dyes)
Clinical features of transitional cell tumours (3)
Pyelonephritis/ hydronephrosis if uretal orifice involved
Diagnosis of transitional cell tumours
cystoscopy & biopsy
Where is SCC especially prevalent?
countries with endemic urinary schistosomiasis
What hormone mediates BPH? Which cells are affected?
Mediated by dihydrotestosterone, causes hyperplasia of stromal & epithelial cells of prostate resulting in large nodules
Symptoms of BPH (4)
What type of cancer is prostate cancer most commonly?
Risk factors for prostate cancer (4)
environment/ hormonal exposure,
Where does prostate cancer spread locally? & haematogenously?
How is Prostate cancer graded?
Gleason system - based on degree of differentiation & glandular patterns
Diagnosis of prostate cancer?
PSA > 4ng/ml is indicative (also from history & exam)
What is the most common type of testicular tumour?
Seminoma (peak age 30s & is radiosensitive)
(originates in germinal epithelium of seminiferous tubules)
When can a testicular teratoma occur? When is it regarded as malignant?
Malignant when occurs post-puberty
Name 3 biological markers for germ cell tumours?
What is the main clinical feature of a testicular tumour?
If a patient has maldescended testis, where are they most likely to be? And is he at increased risk of testicular cancer?
Inguinal canal (95%) yes 10 times increased risk
Name 3 types of renal cell carcinomas
Clear cell (well differentiated) ( a renal cortical tumor typically characterized by malignant epithelial cells with clear cytoplasm )
Papillary carcinoma ( commonest in dialysis associated cystic disease)
Chromophobe renal carcinoma (pale, eosinophilic cells)
What are some risk factors for renal cell carcinoma? (5)
Clinical features of renal cell carcinoma (3)
palpable mass, haematuria, costovertebral pain
Paraneoplastic syndromes in renal cell carcinoma (3)
polycythaemia, hypercalcemia, Cushing's syndrome