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Flashcards in Nephrology 2 Deck (24)
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Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease – extrarenal involvement? Management?

Liver involvement (cirrhosis with portal hypertension)

Renal transplantation


Extrarenal findings in adult polycystic kidney disease?

Cerebral aneurysms


Symptoms of medullary sponge kidney?

Hematuria, UTI, nephrolithiasis


Hereditary renal diseases?

1. Alport's
2. Multicystic renal dysplasia
3. Infantile PKD
4. Adult PKD
5. Medullary sponge kidney
6. Nephronophthisis-Medullary Cystic Disease Complex


Significant versus severe versus malignant hypertension?

Above 95th percentile

Above 99th percentile

End organ damage


Specific acid/base disorder in RTA?

Non gap hyperchloremic acidosis


Distal RTA – characteristic feature? Causes? Clinical presentation? Treatment?

Inability to excrete acid

Inherited, drugs (amphotericin)

Vomiting, growth failure, nephrolithiasis, nephrocalcinosis

Small doses of oral alkaline


Proximal RTA – characteristic feature? Causes? Clinical presentation? Treatment?

Impaired bicarbonate reabsorption

Heavy-metal, gentamicin, Fanconi syndrome

Vomiting, growth failure, muscle weakness

Large doses of oral alkali


Type III RTA? Treatment?

Variant of type 1 with bicarbonate wasting

Large doses of oral alkali


Type IV RTA – characteristic feature? Causes? Clinical presentation? Treatment

Transient acidosis in infants with hyperkalemia

Obstructive neuropathy, aldosterone deficiency

Failure to thrive

Furosemide to lower potassium, oral alkali


Oliguria in children?

Insensible water losses in children?

Urine output <1 mL/kg/hr

300 mL/m²/hr


General treatment for patient with renal failure?

1. Restore intravascular volume first
2. Maintain electrolytes
3. Restrict protein intake
4. Dialysis when conservative management fails


Medical management of renal failure?

1. Nutritional – avoid phosphorus sodium, potassium. Take phosphate binders and vitamin D analogues
02. Blood-pressure management
3. Anemia – give EPO
4. Growth – give growth hormone
5. Electrolyte management


Lab findings in preanal azotemia? Intrarenal failure?

The BUN/creatinine > 20, FEna under 20 specific gravity >1.030, urine osmolality >500,

Decreased urinary B2-Microglobulin, FEna >1%


Child with real failure – when to dyalyse? Preferred method of dialysis in children?

GFR is 5-10% of normal; peritoneal dialysis


Causes of
1. ureteropelvic junction obstruction?
2. Ureterovesical Junction obstruction?
3. Bladder outlet obstruction?

1. Kinks, fibrous bands, Abarrant blood vessels
2. Megaureter, ureterocele, abnormal insertion of ureter
3. Posterior urethral valves (males), prune belly syndrome


Prune belly syndrome?

1. Absence of rectus muscles
2. Bladder outlet obstruction
3. Undescended testicles/Cryptorchidism in males


Causes of renal agenesis?

1. Failure of mesonephric duct
2. Failure of metanephric blastema


Vesicoureteral reflux - defect? Inheritance? Predisposes to? Outcome in most children? Outcome if severe VUR? Diagnosis? Management?

Urine influxing from bladder into ureters

Autosomal dominant

Pyelonephritis; most have spontaneous resolution

Reflux uropathy which may lead to ESRB

Voiding cystourethrogram

1. Low-dose prophylactic antibiotics
2. Consideration of surgical reimplantation of ureters


Grading for vesicoureteral reflux?

Grade 1 – reflux into distal ureter
Grade 2 – reflux into renal pelvis and calyces without dilation
Grade 3 – Reflux into calyces with dilation
Grade 4 – dilation causes clubbed calyces
Grade 5 – gross dilation of entire collecting system


Most common kidney stones in children? Conditions associated with urolithiasis?

Calcium salts, uric acid, cysteine, struvite

1. Hypercalcemia
2. hyperoxaluria (Due to Malabsorption)
3. Hyperuricosuria Lesch-Nyhan, gout, leukemia
4. Sistine urea
5. UTI – especially Proteus


UTI – epidemiology children?

Critical features in neonates? Older infants? Young children?

Urine sample in neonates/infants versus children?

Diagnostic test?

younger than six months – uncircumcised boys
Older than six months – girls

Neonates – fever, irritability, jaundice
Older infants – fever, vomiting, irritability
Young children – nocturnal enuresis, daytime wetting

1. Neonates/infants – sterile catheterization
2. Older children – clean catch

Gold standard – urine culture

All children with pyelonephritis, recurrent UTI, all males, all girls younger than four with cystitis


Urine culture for UTI – significant colony counts if collected by suprapubic aspiration? Sterile urethral catheterization? Clean catch?

Any group




UTI treatment in symptomatic patients? Neonates? Toxic appearing children?

Duration of treatment for cystitis? Pyelonephritis? Pyelonephritis in infants?

1. Empiric Bactrim if symptomatic
2. If neonates – admit for IV ampicillin/gentamicin
3. If toxic appearing – admitted for IV antibiotic and hydration

7-10 days
14 days
Low-dose prophylactic antibiotics for three months to prevent renal scarring