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Flashcards in Ophthalmology Deck (28)
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Red reflex finding:
1. Dark, dull, or white reflex
2. Dark or dull reflex
3. Yellow or white reflex
4. Unequal red reflex
5. Bright or red reflex in deviated eye
6. Dull reflect

1. Cataract
2. Vitreous hemorrhage
3. Retinoblastoma
4. Anisometropia (Significant differences in refractive errors between eyes)
5. Strabismus (Lazy eye)
6. Glaucoma


Amblyopia? Causes? Diagnoses? Management?

Poor vision caused by abnormal visual stimulation

1. Eye misalignment (strabismus) – suppression of nonpreferred eye
2. Any condition that causes of blurred visual image (cataract, Anisometropia, vitreous hemorrhage

1. In preverbal children – bilateral red reflex test is best test
2. In older children – formal acuity

1. Correct refractory errors
2. Patching


Chemical conjunctivitis?

Chemical irritation to eyes due to traps/appointment as prophylactic against Neisseria (especially 1% silver nitrate)


Causes and timescale of conjunctivitis newborns? Tx?

1. Within 24 hours – chemical (watery discharge) – no treatment
2. 2-4 days of life – Neisseria (purulent discharge, swelling, Corneal ulcer) – topical erythromycin, IV cefotaxime
3. 4-10 days – Chlamydia (discharge, lid swelling) – Oral erythromycin
4. 6 days to 2 weeks – HSV (unilateral service discharge) – acyclovir, topical trifluorothymidine


Causes of red, teary eyes in newborns other than conjunctivitis?

1. Congenital glaucoma
2. Dacyrocystitis (infection of nasolacrimal sac)
3. Endopthalmitis – can result in blindness


Unilateral conjunctivitis associated with?

Foreign body, corneal ulcer, herpes simplex keratitis


Clinical features of conjunctivitis (Discharge, itching, preauricular lymphadenopathy, labs)
1. Bacterial
2. Viral
3. Allergic
4. Blepharitis

1. Purulent, non-pruritic, no lymphadenopathy, Gram stain
2. Watery, pruritic, lymphadenopathy, none
3. Watery/mucoid, pruritic, no lymphadenopathy, eosinophils
4. None, none, none, staph aureus on culture


Blepharitis – Causal organism? Clinical features? Management?

staff aureus

1. Burning, crusting, scales
2. Hyperemic eyelid margins
3. Broken/absent eyelashes
4. History of awakening in the morning with eyelashes stuck together

Eyelid hygiene, topical erythromycin


Causal organisms of
1. Bacterial conjunctivitis
2. Viral conjunctivitis

1. H. influenzae, strep pneumo, Moraxella, staph aureus
2. Adenovirus


Epidemic keratoconjunctivitis – Cause? Features? Management?


1. Petechial conjunctival hemorrhage
2. preauricular lymphadenopathy
3. pseudomembrane on conjunctiva
4. Photophobia



Primary ocular HSV – Clinical features?

1. Skin eruption with multiple vesicular lesions
2. Cornual ulcer (rarely)


Causes of hemorrhagic conjunctivitis?

H influenza, adenovirus, picornavirus


Causes of abnormal tearing?

1. Nasolacrimal duct obstruction
2. Aminotocele


Cause of nasolacrimal duct obstruction? Management?

Failure of complete canalization of lacrimal system

1. Observation (half resolved within six months)
2. Nasolacrimal massage/topical antibiotics
3. Nasolacrimal duct probing


Amniotocele – Definition? Cause? Clinical features? Management?

Swelling of nasolacrimal sac; nasolacrimal duct obstruction

1. Bluish swelling in medial canthal area
2. Infection

1. Local massage
2. As about it and nasolacrimal duct probing


Causes of ocular trauma?

1. Retinal hemorrhages
2. Corneal abrasion
3. Hyperemia (blood within anterior chamber)
4. Orbital floor fracture


Retinal hemorrhage suggestive of? Other etiologies?

Child-abuse; increased ICP, hypertension, endocarditis, birth trauma, leukemia


Hyphema – definition? causes? Clinical features? Complications?

Blood in anterior chamber of eye

1. Blunt trauma
2. Non-traumatic – neovascularization, tumors

1. Impaired vision
2. blood-aqueous fluid level

Rebleeding 3 to 5 days after injury, glaucoma, optic nerve damage (and sickle cell)


Findings in orbital floor fracture?

1. Diplopia (from entrapment of inferior rectus muscle), strabismus
2. Numb cheek and teeth (Infraorbital nerve injury)


Normal intraocular pressure in infants? In infants with congenital glaucoma?

Adult glaucoma versus congenital glaucoma?

10-15; >30

Increased intraocular pressure the damages optic nerve


injures optic nerve and expands the size of eye (Results in corneal edema, corneal clouding, amblyopia)


Mechanism for increased Intraocular pressure in congenital glaucoma? Causes of congenital glaucoma?

Reduced outflow of aqueous humor because of maldevelopment of trabecular meshwork

1. Infection – congenital rubella
2. Ocular abnormalities – aniridia
3. Genetic syndromes – Sturge-Weber, neurofibromatosis, Marfan


Clinical features of congenital glaucoma? Management?

Tearing, photophobia, enlarged cornea, corneal clouding, dull-red reflex

Surgery almost always required. Beta-adrenergic and carbonic anhydrase inhibitors may help to lower intraocular pressure


Retinopathy of prematurity? Risk factors? Management? Prevention?

Proliferation of vessels in premature infants exposed to oxygen

High oxygen exposure, low birth weight, transfusions, surfactant deficiency, intracranial hemorrhage

If severe, retinal cryotherapy and laser therapy

1. Minimizing oxygen delivered and effective treatment of highland membrane disease
2. Premature infants should have eye exam at 5 weeks


Causes of congenital cataracts? Prognosis?

1. Genetic – down, Noonan, Marfan, Alport
2. Metabolic – hypoglycemia, galactosemia, diabetes
3. Infection – CMV, rubella

Surgery performed over two months of age is associated with poor visual outcome


Retinoblastoma – age? Chromosome? Two most common presenting signs? Hallmark of retinoblastoma? Clinical signs? Treatment of very small tumors? Small tumors? Large tumors?

13-18 months; chromosome 13

Leukocoria and strabismus

Calcification within the tumor

Glaucoma, vitreous hemorrhage, retinal detachment, hyphema

1. Cryotherapy or laser photocoagulation
2. External beam radiation
3. If it involves macula – remove whole eye


Leukocoria? Suggestive of?

White pupil – suggest opacity at/behind pupil

1. Cataract
2. Retinoblastoma
3. Opacity within the vitreous


Strabismus? Types?

Misalignment of the eyes
1. Esotropia – eye turned nasally
2. Exotropia – eye turned laterally
3. Vertical
4. Pseudostrabismus – Prominence of epicanthal folds result in false appearance of strabismus


Strabismus in pt under six years versus over six years? Tx?

Child suppresses image in deviated eye (resulting in amblyopia)


unable to suppress image in Deviated eye (resulting in diplopia)

1. Patching
2. If associated with farsightedness, Initially treated with corrective lenses
3. Surgery if no response