Nervous system Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Nervous system Deck (60):
1

central nervous system

brain and spinal cord

2

peripheral nervous system

all nervous tissue outside the CNS

3

receptors

light
sound
touch
chemicals

4

effectors

skeletal muscle
smooth muscle
cardiac muscle
glands

5

support neurons, no impulse generation/transmission

neuroglia

6

phagocytic- immune and housekeeping functions

microglia

7

wrap axons in myelin in CNS

oligodentrocytes

8

wrap axons in myelin in PNS

Scwann cells

9

epithelial-like, line canals and cavities

ependymal cells

10

wrap capillaries, control environment of neurons

astrocytes

11

specialized for communication and transmit electrical impulses

neurons

12

cell body

perikaryon

13

typically one per cell and carry impulses away from the perikaryon

axon

14

typically many per cell and receive and transmit signals toward perikaryon

dendrites

15

1 process off perikaryon
splits into axon and dendrites

unipolar

16

2 process off perikaryon

bipolar

17

many process off perikaryon

multipolar neurons

18

in CNS a collection of axons traveling together

tract

19

in PNS a collection of axons traveling together

nerve

20

in CNS cluster of neuron cell bodies

nucleus

21

in PNS cluster of neuron cell bodies

ganglion

22

speeds impulse transmission along axons

myelin

23

gaps in myelin sheaths

nodes of ranvier

24

production of new neurons, repair of neurons

neurogenesis

25

at dendrites and perikaryon
stimulus dependent magnitude
local

graded potentials

26

along axons
all-or-none responses
long distance
reach synapses with other cells

action potentials

27

neurons that release chemcicals into blood

neurosecretory cells

28

forms information processing

convergence
divergence
inhibition

29

input from integument
output to skeletal muscles
relationship with outside world

somatic nerves

30

toward CNS
input
sensory

afferent

31

away from CNS
output
motor

efferent

32

input from viscera
output to smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, glands
relationship with inside world

visceral nerves

33

motor visceral control

autonomic nervous system

34

innervate multiple tissues over wide area

general nerves

35

innervate few tissues in specific location

special nerves

36

numbered according to level of vertebral column they eminate from

spinal nerves

37

dorsal root of spinal nerves

sensory/afferent information

38

ventral root of spinal nerves

motor/efferent informaion

39

innervate specific structures, especially somatic nerves

spinal nerves

40

spinal nerves in development

follow myotomes and dermatomes

41

roots enclosed in braincase/skull

cranial nerves

42

not a nerve but extension of CNS

II- optic

43

branch of X+ brances of spinal nerves C1 and C2

XI accessory

44

for special senses such as vision, hearing, olfaction, taste

special cranial nerves

45

general sensation and motor control

general cranial nerves

46

from vertebrate aquatic to terrestrial shift, cranial nerves...

lateral line system lost
spinal accessory nerve separates vagus nerve
hypoglossal nerve enlarges

47

hypoglossal nerve innervates

tongue and hyoid apparatus

48

PNS functions

spinal reflexes

49

reflex is

rooted in spinal cord
fixed, predictable response

50

somatic reflex arc

sensory receptors of skin, skeletal muscles, tendons
spinal cord interneurons
effectors

51

visceral reflex arc

sensory receptors of digestive tract, vasculature
spinal cord interneurons
effectors (cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, glands)

52

interneurons

preganglionic to synapse location to post-ganglionic

53

dorsal and ventral roots carry visceral motor axons

fishes and amphibians

54

dorsal sensory
ventral motor

amniotes

55

subdivision of PNS controlling visceral activity
involuntary
sensory and motor

autonomic nervous system

56

ANS divisions

sympathetic nervous system
parasympathetic nervous system

57

characteristics of sympathetic nervous system

flight or fight response
energy utilization in short term stresses
increase heart rate, blood pressure, glucose release
short post long pre ganglionic neurons
adrengergic

58

epinephrine/norepinephrine release at effector

adrenergic

59

characteristics of parasympathetic nervous system

rest and digest responses
energy preservation/storage
decrease heart rate, blood pressure, glucose release
craniosacral motor outflow
long pre-ganglionic, short post-ganglionic
cholinergic

60

acetylcholine released at effector

cholinergic