Chapter 13 Digestion part 1 Flashcards Preview

Anatomy > Chapter 13 Digestion part 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 13 Digestion part 1 Deck (87):
1

break up food molecules into smaller molecules that can be absorbed

digestive system

2

physical break up by chewing, mixing, churning

mechanical digestion

3

enzymatic break up of material

chemical digestion

4

transport of material across gut wall into bloodstream

absorption

5

ball of food that is swallowed

bolus

6

continuous tube from mouth opening to anus/cloaca

digestive tract

7

three subdivisions of digestive tract

buccal cavity
pharynx
alimentary canal

8

chamber receiving alimentary canal and urogenital products

cloaca

9

opening separate for digestive tract

anus

10

examples of accessory digestive glands

salivary glands, pancreas, liver

11

oral opening to palatoglossal arch or fauces

buccal cavity

12

buccal cavity features

teeth
tongue
palate
cheeks

13

roof of buccal cavity

palate

14

fishes primary palate

ceiling with no openings

15

tetrapod primary palate

nasal passage openings

16

anterior secondary palate

hard palate

17

posterior secondary palate (mammals)

soft/fleshy palate

18

characteristics of teeth

unique to vertebrates
enamel capped
epidermal and meschymal contribution to form teeth
homology with denticles/scales of primitive fish

19

above gingiva

crown of tooth

20

below gingiva

base of tooth

21

base in socket/aveolus

root

22

site of blood vessels and nerves

apical foramen

23

hard, crown surface, and ameloblasts

enamel

24

under enamel/centenum

dentin

25

dentin is formed from

odontoblasts

26

root surface which has annular growth

cementum

27

connects root to aveolar bone of socket

periodontal ligament

28

all teeth same

homodont

29

teeth are different

herterodont

30

who doesn't have teeth

birds and turtles

31

teeth continuously replaced through life

polyphyodont

32

2 sets of teeth in life

diphyodont

33

what are flat teeth good for

crushing/grinding plant material or animals with shells

34

teeth for cutting flesh

blade like edges and serrations on edges

35

salamander larvae have what kind of teeth

cone shaped teeth

36

salamander adults have what kind of teeth

2-cusp teeth

37

some snakes and sharks have

reverse -curve teeth

38

hollow teeth modified for venom delivery

fangs

39

four types of teeth mammals have

incisors
canines
premolars
molars

40

incisors

cut

41

canines

puncture/ hold

42

premolars

grind/crush

43

molars

grind/crush

44

low crown

brachyodont

45

high crown

hypsodont

46

rounded cusps

bunodont

47

straight-ridges cusps

lophodont

48

crescent-shaped cusps

selenodont

49

specialized teeth for show/ territory defending/ attracting mates

tusks

50

tongue of lamprey/hagfish

from pharynx floor with keratinized teeth for rasping

51

fish tongues

lack muscular tongue

52

tetrapods tongue

mobile, hypobrachial origin, attached to hyoid apparatus

53

protract sticky tongue to capture prey

lingual feeding

54

embryonically pharyngeal pouches off lateral pharynx wall give rise to

thymus
parathyroid
tonsils
ultimobrachial gland

55

regions of alimentary canal

esophagus
stomach
intestine
cloaca/anus

56

4 layers of all regions of alimentary canals

mucosa
submucosa
muscularis externa
adventitia

57

inner layer made with epithelial lining and lamina propria and muscularis mucosae

mucosa

58

loose connective tissue layer that can have many things in it including nerve cells

submucosa

59

circular and longitudinal smooth muscle layers

muscularis externa

60

outer connective tissue layer

adventitia

61

gut lining epithelium embryonic origin

endoderm

62

smooth muscle, connective tissue embryonic origin

mesoderm

63

connects pharynx and stomach

esophagus

64

characteristics of esophagus

peristalsis
mucus secretion to aid food passage
stratified epithelium
smooth muscle posterior and skeletal muscle anterior

65

sites of temporary food storage along esophagus

crop

66

expanded segment posterior to esophagus

stomach

67

characteristics of stomach

food storage
food processing/disgestion
absorption

68

what can the stomach absorb

water
ions
vitamins
short chain fatty acids

69

internal lining folds of stomach

rugae

70

three regions of stomach

cardiac region
fundic region
pyloric region

71

at junction with esophagus

cardiac region

72

largest area of stomach

fundic region

73

parietal cells secrete

HCl

74

chief cells secrete

pepsinogen (inactive)
becomes pepsin (active)

75

at junction with intestine

pyloric region

76

intestinal glands

crypts

77

folds in mucosa of small intestine

plicae circularis

78

projections of mucosa of small intestine

villi

79

there can be three defined regions of small intestine

duodenum
jejunum
ilium

80

shorter thicker region of intestine

large intestine

81

moves material along, mixes material

peristalisis

82

assists movement protects lining

mucus secretion

83

digestive enzymes from intestinal glands

intestinal juice

84

from duodenal glands to neutralize acidic chime from stomach

bicarbonate secretions

85

from pancreas via duct to duodenum providing digestive enzymes and bicarbonate

pancreatic juice

86

from liver/gall bladder and aids in fat digestion

bile

87

areas of immune/ defense structures

MALT, peyer's patches, intestinal flora