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Flashcards in Chapter 3, 4, 5 powerpoint Deck (49):
1

what is amniote grouping based on

pattern of temporal region openings of the skull

2

two things that define temporal fenestra

# of openings
position of the bars

3

No fenestrae,
only seen in ancestral turtles

anapsid skull

4

1 fenestra
upper rim is the bar which is composed of the squamosal and postorbital bones
ancestors of mammals

synapsid skull

5

2 fenestrae
mid= upper bar = squamosal and post orbital
lower rim=lower bar= jugal and quadratojugal bones
found in dinosaurs, birds, and other non turtle reptiles

diapsid skull

6

1 fenestrae
modified diapsid
loss of lower bar

euryapsid

7

when did synapsids arise in the fossil record

300 MYA

8

2 subgroups of synapsids

pelycosaures
terapsids

9

two groups of terapsids

conodonts and mammals

10

3 extant groups of mammals

monotremes
metatherians
eutherians

11

hair, suckle young, endotherms
no nipples, no external ears, shelled eggs

monotremes

12

pouch vs. placenta to nourish young

metatherians

13

placenta to nourish young

eutherians

14

forces that can act on weight bearing structures

compression
tension
shear

15

structure failure over time

fatigue fracture

16

what in bone allows it to resist propagation of fractures

collagen fibers and hydroxyapatite crystals

17

regression/reduction from unstressed or constant stress

atrophy

18

expansion, bigger cells, with stress

hypertrophy

19

expansion, more cells, with stress

hyperplasia

20

4 environmental influences on bone

disease
nutrition
hormones
mechanical stress

21

bone remodeling occurs in proportion to mechanical demands

Wolff's law

22

two other names for spongy bone

trabecular bone
cancellous bone

23

cells that reabsorb bone matrix

osteoclasts

24

refers to the network of trabeculae found in the bone

trabecular

25

when stress is added to spongy bone two things can happen

the bone thickens
the trabeculae are remodeled

26

dense
few spaces
outside layers of all bones
makes up most of the diaphysis of long bones

compact bone

27

the shaft of the bone

diaphysis

28

lattice of thin bone plates or cords
makes up short flat irregularly shaped bones
makes up the epiphysis of long bones
no osteons present

spongy bone

29

wrapped around the outside of bone
connective like tissue
where stem cells hangout
sharpey's fibers grow into the bone
how tendons and cartilage connect to bone

periosteum

30

also has stem cells but surrounds the linings of the bony canals and covering trabeculae

endosteum

31

how cells are arranged in compact bone

osteon

32

little canals that come off the lacunae

canaliculi

33

canals that connect central canals to each other

perforating or Volkmann's canals

34

why is there a medullary cavity and spongy bone in long bones

to make them lighter without compromising the strength

35

organic part of bone matrix

osteoid

36

matrix between cells is made of how much of these three things

25% water
25% protein fibers
50% crystal mineral salt

37

crystallization of bone is also called two things

calcification and mineralization

38

crystallization depends on

both mineral salts and collagen

39

ends of longbones

epiphysis

40

neck between epiphysis and diaphysis

metaphysis

41

two types of bone formation

intramembranous ossification
endochondral ossification

42

bone forms directly on or in loose fibrous connective tissue layers

intramembranous ossification

43

bone from mesenchyme in dermis

dermal bones

44

bone forms in tendons

sesamoid bones

45

bone formation via replacement of cartilage with bone

endochondral ossification

46

bone forms inward from periosteum

primary ossification center

47

form from layer in epiphyseal region
bone forming outwards

secondary ossification center

48

growth in thickness of bone

appositional growth

49

two stages of appositional growth

osteoclasts in endosteum destroy bone lineing in medullary cavity
osteoblasts from periosteum make new bone on the outside surface