Chapter 3, 4, 5 powerpoint Flashcards Preview

Anatomy > Chapter 3, 4, 5 powerpoint > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 3, 4, 5 powerpoint Deck (49)
Loading flashcards...
1

what is amniote grouping based on

pattern of temporal region openings of the skull

2

two things that define temporal fenestra

# of openings
position of the bars

3

No fenestrae,
only seen in ancestral turtles

anapsid skull

4

1 fenestra
upper rim is the bar which is composed of the squamosal and postorbital bones
ancestors of mammals

synapsid skull

5

2 fenestrae
mid= upper bar = squamosal and post orbital
lower rim=lower bar= jugal and quadratojugal bones
found in dinosaurs, birds, and other non turtle reptiles

diapsid skull

6

1 fenestrae
modified diapsid
loss of lower bar

euryapsid

7

when did synapsids arise in the fossil record

300 MYA

8

2 subgroups of synapsids

pelycosaures
terapsids

9

two groups of terapsids

conodonts and mammals

10

3 extant groups of mammals

monotremes
metatherians
eutherians

11

hair, suckle young, endotherms
no nipples, no external ears, shelled eggs

monotremes

12

pouch vs. placenta to nourish young

metatherians

13

placenta to nourish young

eutherians

14

forces that can act on weight bearing structures

compression
tension
shear

15

structure failure over time

fatigue fracture

16

what in bone allows it to resist propagation of fractures

collagen fibers and hydroxyapatite crystals

17

regression/reduction from unstressed or constant stress

atrophy

18

expansion, bigger cells, with stress

hypertrophy

19

expansion, more cells, with stress

hyperplasia

20

4 environmental influences on bone

disease
nutrition
hormones
mechanical stress

21

bone remodeling occurs in proportion to mechanical demands

Wolff's law

22

two other names for spongy bone

trabecular bone
cancellous bone

23

cells that reabsorb bone matrix

osteoclasts

24

refers to the network of trabeculae found in the bone

trabecular

25

when stress is added to spongy bone two things can happen

the bone thickens
the trabeculae are remodeled

26

dense
few spaces
outside layers of all bones
makes up most of the diaphysis of long bones

compact bone

27

the shaft of the bone

diaphysis

28

lattice of thin bone plates or cords
makes up short flat irregularly shaped bones
makes up the epiphysis of long bones
no osteons present

spongy bone

29

wrapped around the outside of bone
connective like tissue
where stem cells hangout
sharpey's fibers grow into the bone
how tendons and cartilage connect to bone

periosteum

30

also has stem cells but surrounds the linings of the bony canals and covering trabeculae

endosteum