chapter 7-skull Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in chapter 7-skull Deck (36):
1

4 functions of the skeleton

give body shape
support body support
work with muscles for movement
protect soft parts

2

two large "divisions" of the skeleton

exoskeleton and endoskeleton

3

the real two divisions of the skeleton

cranial skeleton
postcranial skeleton

4

the three parts of the cranial skeleton

splanchnocranium
chondrocranium
dermatocranium

5

the most ancient part of the skeleton skull, supports the pharynx

splanchnocranium

6

what cells derive the splachnocranium

neural crest cells

7

underlies the brain, can be made of cartilage in some species, in others it has become bone

chondrocranium

8

outer skull casing
what we really think of when we think skull

dermatocranium

9

skull components surrounding/encasing the brain
can be 1,2,or all 3 parts

braincase

10

braincase and attached sensory capsules

neurocranium

11

how is the chondrocranium seen in elasmobranchs

makes up the majority of the braincase and remains as cartilage

12

how is the chondrocranium seen in other vertebrates

embryonic scaffold for parts of the neurocranium
meaning it becomes bone

13

4 things the splanchnocranium does

supports gills
supports buccal pump muscles
contributes to jaw
contributes to hyoid arch

14

what is believed to be the precursor for the splanchnocranium

protochordate pharyngeal bars

15

when organisms evolve to leave water where does the splanchnocranium go

middle ear, larynx, rings of trachea

16

what is the dermatocraniums origin

dermal bones

17

how do dermal bones for min dermatocranium

intramembranous ossification

18

in bony fishes and tetrapods the chondrocranium makes up the

occipital and sphenoid bones
otic capule

19

the hyoid apparatus is part of the

splanchocranium

20

what is the job of the hyoid arch

support floor of the mouth tongue and muscles of throat

21

movement between the upper jaw and braincase

cranial kinesis

22

two big advantages of a kinetic skull

allows change in size/shape of mouth quickly
allows orienting of toothed bones

23

two elements supporting the jaws of chondrichthyes

hydromadiubla and ceratohyal

24

jaws of actinopterygii moved to this mode of feeding

rapid suction feeding

25

how did rapid suction feeding work

rapid expansion of the buccal cavity in all directions creating a negative pressure

26

what increased area up and down during rapid suction feeding

neurocranium raised
mandible lowered

27

what increased the area to widen the buccal cavity during rapid suction feeding

throat muscles and hyoid arch

28

region in skull where we have olfactory centers

nasal capsule

29

how are actinopterygii nasal passages arranged

anterior and posterior nares on each side of head for 1 way flow of water

30

how are tetrapods nasal passages arranged

external naris opens to outside and internal naris into oral cavity to establish pattern for airflow into lungs

31

what is the third nasal sac opening that drains secretions of glands the moisten the eye surface

nasolacrimal duct

32

glands the moisten the eye surface

lacrimal glands

33

what part of the skull loses jaw suspension function and adapts to hearing in air

hyomandiubla

34

what bones are lost in early tetrapod skulls

opercular and extracapsular bones

35

what important feature happens in early tetrapods that allows for a neck to be created

the pectoral girdle detaches from skull

36

in amphibians brachial arches start doing this then end up doing this

support larval gills then reduce to hyoid apparatus to support tongue