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Flashcards in Digestion part 2 Deck (63):
1

Adaptations of the alimentary canal

length
diameter
folds in lining
spiral valves
regionalization

2

expanded part of esophagus

crop

3

expanded part of intestine

cecum

4

extensions off stomach in fish

pyloric ceca

5

outpocketings

diverticula

6

fold in lining

rugae and plicae circularis

7

spiral channel through tube to increase surface area

spiral valve

8

lamprey digestive system

straight tube mouth to anus
ciliated esophagus
no stomach
larvae to adult- develop new esophagus

9

new esophagus in lamprey because

allows feeding via oral disc with ventilation of gills

10

general fish digestive system

great variability in alimentary canals
J-shaped stomach

11

elasmobranch digestive system

stomach muscle
spiral valve in intestine

12

teleost digestive system

no spiral valve
0-200 pyloric ceca

13

amphibians digestive system

short esophagus
stomach
coiled small intestine
short straight large intestine
cloaca

14

lizards have

muscular stomachs

15

crocodilians have

gizzards
glandular stomach anterior to gizzard

16

part of stomach with thick muscle walls that grinds good against hard objects

gizzards

17

herbivorous reptiles

distinct large intestine
cecum posterior small intestine

18

cloaca is made of two parts in reptiles

coprodeum
urodeum

19

birds digestive system

crop off esophagus
glandular stomach
gizzard
small intestine (duodenum and ilium)
short, straight large intestine

20

birds glandular stomach

proventricuus

21

mammal digestive system

no grop
no gizzard
long coiled small intestine
long large intestine
monotremes have cloaca
eutherians have rectum and anus

22

ruminants

rumen
reticulum
omasum
abomasum

23

ruminant true stomach

abomasum

24

empty secretions into buccal cavity via ducts
more characteristic of tetrapods than aquatic vertebrates

oral glands

25

lubricate food and surfaces
start chemical digestion

salivary and mucus glands

26

three main salivary glands

mandibular
sublingual
parotid

27

what products do salivary glands make

mucus
ions
amylase (carb digestion)

28

secret toxins and digestive agents/enzymes

venom glands

29

liver

secretes bile
receives blood from hepatic portal vein to process absorbed materials of small intestine

30

where is bile stored

gall bladder

31

job of bile

digest fat

32

exocrine tissue of pancreas

acinar tissue

33

job of acinar tissue

secrete pancreatic juice

34

enzymes produced by acinar tissue

trypsingoen
lipase
amylase

35

secreted to neutralize stomach acid secretions in intestine

bicarbonate

36

endocrine tissue of pancreas

islets of langerhans

37

job of islets of langerhan

secret insulin and glucagon

38

stomach absorption

limited to water, ions and short chain fatty acids

39

small intestine absorption

most absorption

40

adaptations of small intestine

increased time of passage and increased surface area

41

villi add

10X surface area of intestine

42

microvilli add

100X surface area to intestine

43

movement of material, mixing/churning of material

peristalsis

44

eating feces

coprophagy

45

why eat feces

to re-ingest cecum feces to process again and gain more nutrients and vitamins

46

promotes chemical digestion and gives more surface area for enzymes

mechanical digestion

47

characteristic of mammals

mastication

48

sinew/muscle

carnassial teeth

49

fibrous/grass

grinding teeth

50

nuts/seeds

crushing teeth

51

solution for vertebrates not having cellulases

mutualistic bacteria with cellulases

52

cellulose digestion via mutualists

fermentation

53

fermentation produces

organic acids for absorption and CO2 and CH4 as by-products

54

fermentation in esophagus and stomach

foregut fermenters

55

fermentation in intestine and cecum

hindgut fermenters

56

regurgitation and re-mastication

rumination

57

thin walled sac that collects consumed food

rumen

58

regurgitation occurs via

reverse aspiration and retrograde peristalsis

59

movement of material from rumen and back to separate fine and course materials

reticulum

60

absorbs short chain fatty acids, water
transfers material from reticulum to abomasum
keeps acid out of reticulum and rumen

omasum

61

fundic glandular epithelium
acid and enzymatic digestion of material

abomasum

62

when snakes eat a meal there is a rapid change in their alimentary canal

double intestinal mass
increase intestinal epithelial cell size
increase production of epithelial cells
increase microvilli length
increase mucosal thickness
increase digestive enzyme activity

63

when snakes are fasting there digestive system has

decrease in intestinal mass
intestinal epithelial cells size
production of epithelial cells
microvilli length
mucosal thickness
digestive enzyme activity