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Flashcards in Chapter 8 Deck (48):
1

repeating series of cartilage/bone elements and also supplants notochord in many vertebrates

vertebral column

2

three functions of the vertebral column

supports body weight
muscle attachment sites
stiff axis for body movements and shape

3

two arches of early vertebrae and what they hold

neural arch (nerve cord)
hemal arch (blood vessels)

4

how were early vertebral cords arranged

neural arches were not connected to hemal arches

5

two regions of fish vertebrae

anterior trunk region
posterior caudal region

6

5 regions of vertebrae in tetrapods

cervical
thoracic
lumbar
sacral
caudal

7

centra and arches remain separate

aspidospondyly

8

centra and arches fuse into one piece

holospondyly

9

linking the centra forms

axial column

10

the shape of the centra articulating surfaces influences

movements possible and force distributions

11

which place is the best to have a rotation point in the vertebrae

the center to decrease stress on the nerve cord

12

cushion between vertebrae centrae joint surfaces

intervertebral cartilages

13

intervertebral discs in mammals are made of

fibrocartilage and nucleus pulposus

14

where do the intervertebral ligaments attach

the rims of adjacent centra

15

vertebral processes are also called

apophyses

16

two apophyses that articulate with the ribs

diapophyses
parapophyses

17

ventral apophyses

basopophyses

18

joint forming processes between vertebrae

zygapophyses

19

4 characteristics of ribs

articulate on vertebrae surfaces or fuse with vertebrae
protect internal organs
sites for muscle attachment
role in ventilation and breathing

20

steps to forming ribs in development

myomeres
myosepta
connective tissue
cartilage
ribs

21

three parts of the rib cage

ribs
sternum
cartilage connections

22

why is the development of the sternum important

allows for breathing air, closing rib cage

23

"abdominal ribs"

gastralia

24

three big characteristics of gastralia

dermal bone origin
run sternum to pelvis on lateral ventral body wall
no articulation with vertebrae

25

bottom of turtle shell

plastron

26

components of the plastron

clavicles
interclavicle
gatralia/dermal scales

27

hagfish?

prominent notochord
no vertabrae

28

lamprey?

prominent notochord
small cartilage vertebral elements on dorsal notochord

29

primitive fishes?

prominent notochord
vertebrae with dorsal and ventral cartilage arches
lack centra

30

modern sharks?

expanded cartilage vertebrae
connected dorsal/ventral arches with centra
have some processes

31

teleosts?

ossified vertebral column
centra bone replaces notochord
spines and ribs are more prominent

32

how do fish swim

via lateral undulations

33

large dorsal lobe with vertebrae; small ventral lobe and example

heterocercal
shark

34

vertebral column center; symmetrical dorsal/ventral lobes and example

diphycercal
lungfish

35

vertebral column at dorsal edge; symmetrical dorsal/ventral lobes and example

homocercal
teleost fish

36

where to fin elements attach

hemal arches

37

two problems with transition to land

air is non-buoyant
respiration in air

38

what is the solution for increased torsion/twist on the vertebral column on land

zygapophyses intervertebral articulations
they will also interlock to suppress torsion

39

what is the solution of increased weight bearing stress on column

reduce number of centra
increase centra mass

40

what is the purpose of increasing the centra mass

reduce flexibility of column
raise capacity to support weight

41

first and second vertebrae in all amniotes

atlas
axis

42

atlas/axis joint allows for

rotation of the head

43

atlas/skull allows for

lift/tilt of head

44

what is the purpose of the fused synsacrum of the bird

study to support flight
fewer muscles to attach which is lighter

45

some thoracic, lumbar, sacral, and caudal fuse

synsacrum

46

in snakes there is increased torsion on the vertebral column, what is the solution

increase the number of zygapophyses to support column

47

in mammals there are highly regionalized vertebral columns, number of cervical, thoracic and lumbar, sacral, and caudal

7
15-20
2-5
varies

48

in many mammals why are the posterior thorax vertebrae without ribs

allows for greater hind limb stride