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Flashcards in Nervous System Deck (52):
1

What are the 5 functions of the nervous system?

1 Sensory input
2. Integration
3. Homeostasis
4. Mental activity
5. Control of skeletal muscle

2

What pathway does the sensory system use?

Ascending pathway

3

Skeletal muscles are supplied by what Nervous system?

Somatic NS

4

What is the neurotransmitter for skeletal muscle?

Acetylcholine

5

How many vertebrae are in the spine?

26 - 7 cervical, 12 Thoracic, 5 Lumbar, 1 Sacral, 1 Coccygeal

6

How many nerves supply the Spine?

31 - 8 Cervical, 12 Thoracic, 5 Lumbar, 5 Saccral, 1 coccygeal

7

What are the two primary divisions of the nervous system?

Central Nervous System
Peripheral Nervous System

8

How many pairs of cranial nerves are there?

12

9

What is the Afferent pathway?

It is the ascending pathway that takes information to the central nervous system

10

What is the efferent pathway?

It is the descending pathway that take motor information to the muscle and glands

11

Efferent NS is split into 2 categories, what are they?

Somatic
Autonomic

12

What does the Somatic NS supply?

Skeletal Muscle

13

What does the Autonomic NS Supply?

Smooth muscle
Cardiac Muscle
Glands

14

What is the name of the neurotransmitter for the skeletal muscle and the Parasympathetic NS?

Acetylcholine

15

What is a Ganglia?

a structure containing a number of nerve cell bodies, typically linked by synapses, and often forming a swelling on a nerve fibre.

16

What is the main difference between the Autonomic and Somatic NS?

The Autonomic is involuntary, the somatic is Voluntary.

17

The Autonomic NS is further divided, what are these categories?

Sympathetic and Parasympathetic NS

18

What are the main difference between Sympathetic and parasympathetic NS?

Sympathetic NS is 'Fight or Flight'
Parasympathetic is 'Rest and Digest'

19

What is the main physical differences between Sympathetic and parasympathetic NS?

With the Sympathetic NS, the ganglia are closer to the spinal cord, meaning they have a shorter Pre ganglia neuron and a longer post ganglia neuron. The Neurons leave in the mid spine.

The parasympathetic is the opposite, and leave at the brain stem and coccyx.

20

What is the neurotransmitter for the Sympathetic NS?

noradrenaline

21

What is a 'receptor' and an 'effector'?

A receptor is where a signal/impulse starts
Effector is the effect/reaction on the other side.

22

What are the two nerve cells?

Neurons and neuroglia

23

What does Neuroglia do?

It Supports the Neurons, Regulates there environment, and defends them from infection.

24

What is the name given the RER in a neuron?

Nissl body

25

Why would a Neuron contain lots of RER?

to make the neurotransmitter protein

26

What is the name given to the small protrusion sometimes found on the axon?

Collateral

27

What is the function of the microtubules found in the neuron?

To transport the Neurotransmitters.

28

What are the 3 different types of Structural classification of Neurons?

Multipolar - many dendrites and one axon - motor neuron
Unipolar - One extension from the cell body - sensory neuron
Bipolar - One dendrite one axon - found in eyes, ears and nose.

29

What is the name of the cell that make the myelin sheath in the PNS?

Schwann cells - they are a neuroglia

30

What is the name of the cell that makes the myelin in the CNS?

Oligodendrocytes these are a neuroglia

31

Name 4 Neuroglia that are found in the CNS and give there functions ?

Oligodendrocytes (myliantion), Astroglia (keeping Blood Brain Barrier), Microglia (defense, like a macro-phage) and Ependymal Cells (Secrete Cerebral Spinal Fluid)

32

Name the one Neuroglia that is found only in the PNS?

Schwann Cells - mylianation

33

Depending on the neuron Schwann cells can have two different functions. What are these?

Support (hold neurons together) - unmyelinating
Insulate (wrapped around neurons) - myelinating

34

What is the name given to the synapse between the terminal synapse of one neuron and the dendrite of another?

Axodendritic Synapse

35

What is the name given to the synapse between the cell body and the axon?

Axosomatic Synpase

36

What is the name given to the synapse between an axon and axon?

Axo-axonic synapse

37

What is the collective name for when axons come together in the PNS?

Nerve Fibres - white matter

38

What is the collective names for Cell bodies in the PNS?

Ganglia - grey matter

39

What is the collective name for Axons in the CNS?

Tracts - White matter

40

What is the collective name given to cell bodies in the CNS?

Centres - Grey matter

41

What is the name given to the connective tissue that covers one neuron?

Endoneurium

42

What is the name given to the CT that covers a group of Axons?

Perineurium

43

What is the name given to the CT that covers the whole outter sheath?

Epineurium

44

What is the name given to the collection of nerve cell bodies in the PNS?

Ganglia

45

Where is the dorsal root ganglia found?

Protruding from the spinal vertbrea

46

What is the function of the spinal cord?

To provide link between the PNS & CNS

47

What vertebrae dose the spinal cord end?

L1/L2

48

Is the Dorsal and Ventricle roots sensory or motor?

Dorsal is Sensory and the Ventricle is motor.

49

What are the names given to the 3 regions of the spinal grey matter?

Anterior, posterior and lateral Horns

50

What is the name of the fluid found in the Spinal central canal?

Central spinal fluid

51

What are the names and functions of the 3 main sensory pathways?

Spinothalmic Tract - Temperature and pain
Spinocerebellar Tract - exact position of the joints
Dorsal Column - Fine touch, position and vibration

52

What is the main descending pathway/tract?

Coticospinal tract - used in voluntary movement.