Flashcards in Nervous System Deck (52):
What are the 5 functions of the nervous system?
1 Sensory input
4. Mental activity
5. Control of skeletal muscle
What pathway does the sensory system use?
Skeletal muscles are supplied by what Nervous system?
What is the neurotransmitter for skeletal muscle?
How many vertebrae are in the spine?
26 - 7 cervical, 12 Thoracic, 5 Lumbar, 1 Sacral, 1 Coccygeal
How many nerves supply the Spine?
31 - 8 Cervical, 12 Thoracic, 5 Lumbar, 5 Saccral, 1 coccygeal
What are the two primary divisions of the nervous system?
Central Nervous System
Peripheral Nervous System
How many pairs of cranial nerves are there?
What is the Afferent pathway?
It is the ascending pathway that takes information to the central nervous system
What is the efferent pathway?
It is the descending pathway that take motor information to the muscle and glands
Efferent NS is split into 2 categories, what are they?
What does the Somatic NS supply?
What does the Autonomic NS Supply?
What is the name of the neurotransmitter for the skeletal muscle and the Parasympathetic NS?
What is a Ganglia?
a structure containing a number of nerve cell bodies, typically linked by synapses, and often forming a swelling on a nerve fibre.
What is the main difference between the Autonomic and Somatic NS?
The Autonomic is involuntary, the somatic is Voluntary.
The Autonomic NS is further divided, what are these categories?
Sympathetic and Parasympathetic NS
What are the main difference between Sympathetic and parasympathetic NS?
Sympathetic NS is 'Fight or Flight'
Parasympathetic is 'Rest and Digest'
What is the main physical differences between Sympathetic and parasympathetic NS?
With the Sympathetic NS, the ganglia are closer to the spinal cord, meaning they have a shorter Pre ganglia neuron and a longer post ganglia neuron. The Neurons leave in the mid spine.
The parasympathetic is the opposite, and leave at the brain stem and coccyx.
What is the neurotransmitter for the Sympathetic NS?
What is a 'receptor' and an 'effector'?
A receptor is where a signal/impulse starts
Effector is the effect/reaction on the other side.
What are the two nerve cells?
Neurons and neuroglia
What does Neuroglia do?
It Supports the Neurons, Regulates there environment, and defends them from infection.
What is the name given the RER in a neuron?
Why would a Neuron contain lots of RER?
to make the neurotransmitter protein
What is the name given to the small protrusion sometimes found on the axon?
What is the function of the microtubules found in the neuron?
To transport the Neurotransmitters.
What are the 3 different types of Structural classification of Neurons?
Multipolar - many dendrites and one axon - motor neuron
Unipolar - One extension from the cell body - sensory neuron
Bipolar - One dendrite one axon - found in eyes, ears and nose.
What is the name of the cell that make the myelin sheath in the PNS?
Schwann cells - they are a neuroglia
What is the name of the cell that makes the myelin in the CNS?
Oligodendrocytes these are a neuroglia
Name 4 Neuroglia that are found in the CNS and give there functions ?
Oligodendrocytes (myliantion), Astroglia (keeping Blood Brain Barrier), Microglia (defense, like a macro-phage) and Ependymal Cells (Secrete Cerebral Spinal Fluid)
Name the one Neuroglia that is found only in the PNS?
Schwann Cells - mylianation
Depending on the neuron Schwann cells can have two different functions. What are these?
Support (hold neurons together) - unmyelinating
Insulate (wrapped around neurons) - myelinating
What is the name given to the synapse between the terminal synapse of one neuron and the dendrite of another?
What is the name given to the synapse between the cell body and the axon?
What is the name given to the synapse between an axon and axon?
What is the collective name for when axons come together in the PNS?
Nerve Fibres - white matter
What is the collective names for Cell bodies in the PNS?
Ganglia - grey matter
What is the collective name for Axons in the CNS?
Tracts - White matter
What is the collective name given to cell bodies in the CNS?
Centres - Grey matter
What is the name given to the connective tissue that covers one neuron?
What is the name given to the CT that covers a group of Axons?
What is the name given to the CT that covers the whole outter sheath?
What is the name given to the collection of nerve cell bodies in the PNS?
Where is the dorsal root ganglia found?
Protruding from the spinal vertbrea
What is the function of the spinal cord?
To provide link between the PNS & CNS
What vertebrae dose the spinal cord end?
Is the Dorsal and Ventricle roots sensory or motor?
Dorsal is Sensory and the Ventricle is motor.
What are the names given to the 3 regions of the spinal grey matter?
Anterior, posterior and lateral Horns
What is the name of the fluid found in the Spinal central canal?
Central spinal fluid
What are the names and functions of the 3 main sensory pathways?
Spinothalmic Tract - Temperature and pain
Spinocerebellar Tract - exact position of the joints
Dorsal Column - Fine touch, position and vibration