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Flashcards in Cells Deck (16):
1

What is anabolism?

Complex molecules being generated from smaller molecules (falls under metabolism)

2

What is Catabolisum?

Complex molecules being broken down into smaller molecules (falls under metabolism)

3

What does amphipathic mean?

A molecule that possesses both hydrophobic and hydrophilic elements - cell membrane

4

What are the 6 different types of proteins found on the cell membrane?

Ion channels
Receptors
Enzymes
Gated ion channels
Cell identity markers
Cell adhesion molecules

5

What are the 3 types of passive diffusion?

Osmosis (water)
Diffusion (Oxygen & CO2)
Facilitated Diffusion (Larger molecules)

6

What is diffusion?

When something moves from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration. i.e water, oxygen, carbon dioxide.

7

What factors can effect diffusion?

Concentration (more concentrated the faster)
Permeability of the membrane
Membrane surface area
Voltage gradient
Diffusion distance - (How far it has to travel)

8

What is active transport? Give and explanation and example.

Active transport is the movement of molecules across a cell membrane from a region of their lower concentration to a region of their higher concentration in the direction against a passive gradient
Example Primary and Secondary AT - sodium potassium pumps
(ATP NEEDED FOR PRIMARY ACTIVE TRANSPORT ONLY!!!)

9

What is Secondary active transport?

When sodium wants to come back into the cell due to gradient - glucose piggy backs onto the sodium ion.

10

Vesicles transport. What is the name given for coming into the cell and the name for going out of the cell?

Endocytosis in coming in
Excotcytosis/Phagocytosis in exiting the cell.

11

What do Ribosomes do?

Make proteins.

12

What is the main ion inside the cells (ICF)?

Potassium and Phosphate

13

What is the main ion outside the cell (ECF)?

Sodium, Calcium, chloride

14

What is Osmolarity?

The total number of dissolved particles per kg of water

15

What can change the fluid distributions between cells??

The balance of different ions within and outside of the cell. They can draw in or out water.

16

When the ECF and ICF are in balance with each other what is this called?

Isotonic