Nervous System Flashcards Preview

Anatomy > Nervous System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Nervous System Deck (34):
1

Neuroglia

Specialized cells produce myelin, communicate between cells, provide structural support

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Dendrites

Process of neuron that receives input from other neurons

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Axon

Nerve fiber conducts nerve impulse away from cell body

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Nerve impulse

Depolarization and repolarization along a nerve fiber

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Nerves

Bundle of nerve fibers

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Synapse

Functional connection between axon of one neuron and dendrite or cell body of another neuron or membrane of other cell type

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Synaptic cleft

Narrow extracellular space between presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons

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Neurotransmitter

Chemicals that an axon end secretes that stimulates a muscle fiber yo contract or a neuron to fire an impulse

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CNS

Brain and spinal cord

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PNS

Parts of nervous system outside central nervous system

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Sensory receptors

Specialized structure associated with peripheral end of sensory neuron specific to detecting a particular sensation and triggering a nerve impulse in response

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Effectors

Muscle or gland that effects change in body

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Somatic nervous system

Motor pathways of peripheral nervous system that lead to skin and skeletal muscles

14

Autonomic nervous system

Part of nervous system that controls viscera

15

Cell body

Part of nerve cell that includes cytoplasmic mass and a nucleus and from which nerve fibers extend

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Neurofibrils

Fine cytoplasmic thread that extends from the cell body into the process of neuron

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Schwann cells

Type of Neuroglia that surrounds fiber of periodontal nerve forming neurilemma and myelin

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Myelin

Fatty material forms sheathlike covering around certain nerve fibers

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Neurilemma

Sheath on certain nerve fibers formed by Schwann cells

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Nodes of Ranvier

Short region of exposed axon between Schwann cells on neurons of PNS

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Oligodendrocyte

Type of Neuroglia in CNS that produces myelin

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Astrocytes

Type of Neuroglia that connects neurons to blood vessels and provides growth factors

23

Microglia

Neuroglia that supports neurons and phagocytize

24

Ependyma

Membrane composed of Neuroglial cells that lines ventricles of brain

25

Bipolar neuron

Nerve cell whose cell body has only one axon and one dendrite

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Multipolar neuron

Nerve cell that has many processes emanating from its cell body

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Unipolar neuron

Neuron that had a single nerve fiber extending from its cell body

28

Pre synaptic neuron

One of two adjacent neurons transmitting an impulse
Cell on sending side

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Post synaptic neuron

One of two adjacent neurons transmitting an impulse
Cell on receiving side

30

Myelinated axons

Axons with myelin sheaths

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Unmyelinated axons

Lack myelin sheaths

32

Nissl bodies

Membranous packets consist mainly of rough endoplasmic reticulum

33

Receptor proteins

Receive neurotransmitters
Located on dendrites

34

Neuron

Nerve cell