Flashcards in Nervous System & Spinal Cord Deck (59):
What is central nervous system?
Brain and spinal cord
What are parts of brain?
Functions of brainstem? Cerebellum? Cerebrum?
Basic functions (respiration)
Movement/motor coordination/ motor learning
Personality, decision making, cognitive
What does peripheral nervous system have?
12 pairs of cranial nerves
31 pairs of spinal nerves
Where do cranial nerves go to? Spinal nerves?
Peripheral nerves to the brain
Goes out to body
What does nervous system have?
Neurons and glia
What do neurons contain?
Cell body, dendrites and axon
Which are there more in nervous system: glia or neuron? What are glia functions?
Support/ nourish neurons
Maintain electrical balance by mopping up excess K+
What type of neuron that is sensory and signal info comin to NS?
What neurons that is responsible for motor and bein sent out of NS?
How do neurons communicate?
Via action potentials
Synapses: presynapstic contact with post-synapstic and release neurotransmitter to create potential
What is it called if dense cell bodies in PNS? Dense axons of PNS?
Why is the most dense axons called white matter?
Because of Myelin sheath
What is it called if dense cells in CNS? What is it called if dense axons in CNS?
What are nerves in primary afferent system?
Bundles of axons
What axon is surrounded by?
How does blood supply axons?
Blood supply via epineurium with capillaries
What determine the regeneration?
Dependent on how well aligned the connective tissue
Because it is easy for axons to grow across small gap and reach the endoneurium tubes
What happen if axons dont reach the tube endoneurium?
The axons die
What does meninges do?
Connective tissue enclose CNS
What tough connective tissue which is outer layer enclose CNS? What other name for it?
What is aracnoid? Its structure?
The second layer below dura mater that connect to deepest layer
What is called "soft mother"?
Pia mater. The deepest layer of meninges
What is subaracnoid space? What circulate through it?
Space btw pia and arcanoid.
Cerebrospinal fluid (csf)
Support/suspect the brain
What are major reflex center?
Stretc reflex, tendon jerk, scratch/wipe
Where does spinal cord extend fron and to?
Foramen magnum to L1 and L2 vertebrae
How spinal cord travels? How is it protected?
Travel in vertebrae canal
Bone/ ligamentso/meninges/ CSf
Why brachial/cervical are larger than others?
Because the need to innervate limbs and contain more motor neurons
Where do you find conus medullaries?
End of spinal cord btw L1-L2
What part lf interneuron is in? What is the other name for it?
Entire in CNS and not PNS
What does lumbosacral enlargment innervate?
How many pair of nerves is there for spinal segment?
What attaches to sacral hiatus?
Where is cauda equina located?
What grow more vertebrae or spinal cord?
What is dorsal horn for? Ventral horn for?
What and where is lateral horn?
Its preganglionic SNS
In lumbar and upper sacral
Spinal nerves is a mixed of what?
Sensory and motor
What is dorsal ramus? Where it goes to?
Mixed of sensory and motor.
It goes to deep back muscles and overlying skins
What is ventral rimus? Where does it go to?
Sensory and motor.
To remaining trunk and limbs
Location and number of spinal nerves?
Why thoracic vertebrae are smaller than the cervical?
Because cervical has more axon (white matter) for arms legs and trunk
% of white/gray in cervical C1 and L4?
What are meninges of spinal cord?
What does pia mater make up?
Denticulate ligament? What is it function? Where is not founded?
Later projection of pia that attach to walls of vertebrae canal.
Help suspend the spinal cord
For epidura block, where do you insert your needle?
Into the epidural space
Where do you insert needle for spinal block/ lumbar puncture?
What location to insert
In subarchanoid space
How much blood the anterior spinal artery supply? Posterior spinal artery?
What are vertebrae arteries that supply for all over the spinal cord? What part of vertebrae is supplied solely by them?
Anterior/posterior spinal arteries
Upper cervical segments
What arteries supply the below cervical segments?
Anter/post segmental medullary arteries
Where does anterior/post segmental medullary arteries come from?
Branch of intercostal and lhmbar arteries
Where does give off intercostal arteries?
Thorax (btw ribs)
What is venous plexi used for? Why?
Alternate return path. Because its more flexible than arteries, it can be used to control blood volume
Strip of skin innervated by spinal nerve
The innervation of muscle by spinal nerves
What is spinal cord?
Spinal cord is the continuation of brain stem