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Flashcards in Nervous System & Spinal Cord Deck (59):
1

What is central nervous system?

Brain and spinal cord

2

What are parts of brain?

Brain stem
Cerebellum
Cerebrum

3

Functions of brainstem? Cerebellum? Cerebrum?

Basic functions (respiration)
Movement/motor coordination/ motor learning
Personality, decision making, cognitive

4

What does peripheral nervous system have?

12 pairs of cranial nerves
31 pairs of spinal nerves

5

Where do cranial nerves go to? Spinal nerves?

Peripheral nerves to the brain
Goes out to body

6

What does nervous system have?

Neurons and glia

7

What do neurons contain?

Cell body, dendrites and axon

8

Which are there more in nervous system: glia or neuron? What are glia functions?

Support/ nourish neurons
Maintain electrical balance by mopping up excess K+
Signaling

9

What type of neuron that is sensory and signal info comin to NS?

Afferent

10

What neurons that is responsible for motor and bein sent out of NS?

Efferent

11

How do neurons communicate?

Via action potentials
Synapses: presynapstic contact with post-synapstic and release neurotransmitter to create potential

12

What is it called if dense cell bodies in PNS? Dense axons of PNS?

Ganglion
Nerves

13

Why is the most dense axons called white matter?

Because of Myelin sheath

14

What is it called if dense cells in CNS? What is it called if dense axons in CNS?

Gray matter
White matter

15

What are nerves in primary afferent system?

Bundles of axons

16

What axon is surrounded by?

Endoneurium
Epineurium
Perineuriun

17

How does blood supply axons?

Blood supply via epineurium with capillaries

18

What determine the regeneration?
Why?

Dependent on how well aligned the connective tissue

Because it is easy for axons to grow across small gap and reach the endoneurium tubes

19

What happen if axons dont reach the tube endoneurium?

The axons die

20

What does meninges do?

Connective tissue enclose CNS

21

What tough connective tissue which is outer layer enclose CNS? What other name for it?

Dura mater
Hard mother

22

What is aracnoid? Its structure?

The second layer below dura mater that connect to deepest layer

Weblike structure

23

What is called "soft mother"?

Pia mater. The deepest layer of meninges

24

What is subaracnoid space? What circulate through it?

Space btw pia and arcanoid.
Cerebrospinal fluid (csf)

25

CSF functions?

Support/suspect the brain
Protect brains
Bring nutrients

26

What are major reflex center?

Stretc reflex, tendon jerk, scratch/wipe

27

Where does spinal cord extend fron and to?

Foramen magnum to L1 and L2 vertebrae

28

How spinal cord travels? How is it protected?

Travel in vertebrae canal
Bone/ ligamentso/meninges/ CSf

29

Why brachial/cervical are larger than others?

Because the need to innervate limbs and contain more motor neurons

30

Where do you find conus medullaries?

End of spinal cord btw L1-L2

31

What part lf interneuron is in? What is the other name for it?

Entire in CNS and not PNS
Intermediate zone

32

What does lumbosacral enlargment innervate?

Legs

33

How many pair of nerves is there for spinal segment?

A pair

34

What attaches to sacral hiatus?

Filum terminale

35

Where is cauda equina located?

Lumbar cistern

36

What grow more vertebrae or spinal cord?

Vertebrae

37

What is dorsal horn for? Ventral horn for?

Sensory
Motor

38

What and where is lateral horn?

Its preganglionic SNS
In lumbar and upper sacral

39

Spinal nerves is a mixed of what?

Sensory and motor

40

What is dorsal ramus? Where it goes to?

Mixed of sensory and motor.
It goes to deep back muscles and overlying skins

41

What is ventral rimus? Where does it go to?

Sensory and motor.
To remaining trunk and limbs

42

Location and number of spinal nerves?

8 cervical
12 thoracic
5 lumbar
5 sacral
1 coccygeal

43

Why thoracic vertebrae are smaller than the cervical?

Because cervical has more axon (white matter) for arms legs and trunk

44

% of white/gray in cervical C1 and L4?

70-30%
50-50%

45

What are meninges of spinal cord?

Dura
Arachnoid
Pia mater
Denticulate ligament

46

What does pia mater make up?

Filum terminale
Denticulate ligament

47

Denticulate ligament? What is it function? Where is not founded?

Later projection of pia that attach to walls of vertebrae canal.

Help suspend the spinal cord
The brain

48

For epidura block, where do you insert your needle?

Into the epidural space

49

Where do you insert needle for spinal block/ lumbar puncture?

What location to insert

In subarchanoid space
Below l2

50

How much blood the anterior spinal artery supply? Posterior spinal artery?

2/3
1/3

51

What are vertebrae arteries that supply for all over the spinal cord? What part of vertebrae is supplied solely by them?

Anterior/posterior spinal arteries
Upper cervical segments

52

What arteries supply the below cervical segments?

Anter/post segmental medullary arteries

53

Where does anterior/post segmental medullary arteries come from?

Branch of intercostal and lhmbar arteries

54

Where does give off intercostal arteries?

Thorax (btw ribs)

55

What is venous plexi used for? Why?

Alternate return path. Because its more flexible than arteries, it can be used to control blood volume

56

Dermatome

Strip of skin innervated by spinal nerve

57

Myotome

The innervation of muscle by spinal nerves

58

What is spinal cord?

Spinal cord is the continuation of brain stem

59

Where does spinal nerves depart from and to?

Spinal cord to become involved in PNS system