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Flashcards in Neuro! Deck (261):
1

neutral tube defects

increases AFP, AChE

2

syringomyelia

bilateral loss of pain and temp in upper extremities

3

cells that originate from neural crest

PNS neurons
Schwann cells

4

GFAP

astrocyte marker

5

NE location

locus ceruleus
increased in anxiety, decrease in depression

6

Dopamine location

ventral tegmentum and SNc
increased in schizpophrenia
decreases in Parkinsons, depression

7

5HT

raphe nucleus
decreased in anxiety and depression

8

AcH

basal nucleus of meynert
decreases in alzheimers, huntingtons
increase in REM sleep

9

GABA

nucleus accumbens
decreases in anxiety, depression

10

resting tremor

parkinson's

11

essential tremer

exacerabted by holding posture/limb position

12

intention tremor

cerebellar dysfunction

13

Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome

thiamine/B1 def
confusion, ataxia, ophthalomoplegia

14

Broca's area

inferior frontal gyrus of frontal lobe

15

Wernicke's area

superior temporal gyrus of temporal lobe

16

Broca's aphasia

comprehends, but can't understand when they talk

17

Wernicke's

fluent aphaisa, impaired comprehension

18

dorsal column

pressure
vibration
fine touch
proprioception

19

anterior spinothalmic tract

crude touch, pressure

20

lateral spinothalamic tract

pain, temp

21

lateral corticospinal tract

descending voluntary mvmt of CL limbs

22

biceps reflex

C5

23

triceps reflex

C7

24

patella reflex

L4

25

achilles reflex

S1

26

Optic Canal

CN II
opthalmic artery
central retinal vein

27

Superior orbital fissure

CN III, IV, V1, VI

28

Foramen Rotundum

CN V2

29

Foramen Ovale

CN V3

30

Foramen spinosum

middle mengingial artery

31

internal auditory meatus

CN VII, VIII

32

jugular foramen

CN IX, X, XI
juglar vein

33

hypoglossal canal

CN XII

34

cavernous sinus

CN III, IV
V1, V2
VI

35

mastication muscles - close jaw

masseter, temporalis, medial pterygoid
V3

36

mastication muscles - lower jaw

lateral pterygoid
V3

37

lateral rectus

VI

38

superior oblique

IV

39

miosis

constrction
parasympathetic
edinger-westphal nucleus, short ciliary nerves to pupillary sphincter muscles

40

mydriasis

dilation, sympathetic
superior cervical ganglion
long ciliary nerves
pupillary dilator muscles

41

pupillary light reflex

bilateral pupillary constriction

42

Krabbe's disease

AR
def of galactocerebrosidase
destroys myelin sheath

43

Craniopharyngioma

calcified cystic mass
cholesterol crystals

44

common origin of craniopharyngioma

pituitary gland
ectoderm

45

early onset Alzheimer's genes

APP (ch21)
presenilin 1 (Ch 14)
presenilin 2 (Ch 1)

46

Late onset Alzheimer's genes

E4 allele of apolipoprotein E

47

ApoE2

protective for Alzheimer's disease

48

Alzheimer's disease treatments

1) enhance cholinergic neurotransmission
2) antioxidants/neuroprotective
3) NMDA receptor antagonism

49

Alzheimer's NT

decreased ACH

50

neurofibrillary tangles

AD, intracellular
abnormally phosphorylated tau protein
correlate with degree of dementia

51

alpha tocopheral

vitamin E
neuroprotective for AD

52

memantine

NMDA receptor antagonist

53

blood brain barrier

tight junctions (nonfenestrated)
basement membrane
astrocyte foot processes

54

MCA

contralateral paralysis of upper limb and face

55

ACA

contralateral paralysis of lower limb

56

crescent shaped

subdural hematoma

57

subdural hematoma: vasospasm

due to blood breakdown
treat with CCB (nimodipine)

58

degernation of posterior columns, spinocerebellar tracts + lateral corticospinal tracts

vit b12 or vit E def

59

vitamin E def (degeneration of posterior + spinocerebellar tracts) similar to

Friedrich's ataxia

60

neuro cytoplasmia eosinophilia

glial hyperplasia

61

CN V lesion

jaw towards side of lesion

62

CN X lesion

uvula deviates away

63

CN XI lesion

weakness turning head to CL side of lesion
shoulder droop on side of lesion

64

CN XII lesion

tongue deviates towards side of lesion

65

Schwannoma

spindle cells
S100 positive

66

Germinoma

pineal gland tumor
-precocious pubery
-obstructive hydrocephalus
- parniaud syndrome

67

parinaud syndrome

paralysis of upward gaze and convergance
(due to germinoma)

68

Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy

due to advanced age
recurrent hemorrhagic stroke

69

morphine mofA at spinal cord level

G protein, increase K efflux
hyperpolarize the cell, terminate pain transmission

70

treatment for trigeminal neuralgia

carbamazepine

71

treatment for refractory partial seizures

tigabine, vigabatrin, gabapnetin
topiramate

72

topiramate mofa

blocks Na channels
increase GABA

73

benzodiazepines

-zepam
increase GABAa

74

acute opiod withdrawal in neonates

opium solution

75

Steven Johnson syndromes drugs

carbamazepine
ethosuximide
lamotrigine
phenytoin

76

lamotrigine AE

steven johnson

77

carbamazepine AE

SIADH (hyponatremia)
hepatic dysfunction

78

valproic acid AE

acute hepatic failure
pancreatitis
teratogen

79

felbamate

aplastic anemia, hepatic failure

80

phenytoin

ataxia
hepatic dysfunction
gingivial hyperplasia

81

topiramate

metabolic acidosis
glaucoma
weight loss
kidney stones

82

levetiracetam

sedation, irriability

83

zolpidem (ambien)

short acting, binds GABAa receptor

84

zolpidem reverasal

flumazenil

85

gardner's mydriasis

belladonna alkoids -- anticholin
treat with physotigimine

86

atropine overdose

physostigmine

87

NTD mechanism

failure of neurospores to close

88

NF-1 Specifics

1) cafe au lait spots
2) neurofibromas
3) lisch nodules (iris)
4) pheochromocytomas

89

Friedreich Ataxia Symptoms

1) ataxia
2) kyphoscholiosis
3) foot abnormalities
4) DM
5) HCM

90

intracranial schwanomas location

cerebellopontine angle

91

Timolol

(beta blocker), use for glaucoma
decrease aqueous humor production

92

where does aqueous humor production occur

ciliary epithelium

93

to decrease aqueous humor synthesis

alpha agonist
beta blocker
acetazolamide

94

benzos increase frequency of

cloride channel openings

95

contract diaphragm

intrapleural pressure falls

96

progressively weaker contractions of diaphragm

mysasthenia gravis

97

suprachiasmatic nucleus

circardian rhythm

98

CSF flow

lateral --> 3rd --> 4 th --> subarachnoid space

99

lateral --> 3rd ventricle

interventricular foramen of Monro

100

3rd ventricle --> 4th ventricle

cerebral aqueduct

101

4th ventricle --> subarachnoid space

foramen of luschka (lateral)
foramen of magendie (medial)

102

hydrocephalus exvacu

appearance of increase CSF because atrophy
Alzheimers, HIV, Pick's

103

Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus

increased subarachnoid space but no increase in pressure
urinary incontinence
ataxia
cognitive dysfucntion

104

communicating hydrocephalus

decrease CSF absorption
increase ICP

105

non communicating hydrocephalus

structural blockage of CSF

106

Pick's disease

tau protein aggregates
frontal cortex atrophy

107

spongiform cortex (transformation of gray matter)

CJD

108

transtentorial herniation (uncal)

medial temporal lobe thru gap between crus cerebri and tentorium

109

uncal herniation - symptoms

paralysis of CN III
homonymous hemaniopia with macular sparing
ipsilateral hemiparesis
brainstem hemorrhage = death

110

subfalcine herniation

cingulate gyrus under falx cerebri
compress ACA

111

tonsillar herniation

thru foramen magnum
compress medulla

112

linezolid

weak MAOI

113

drugs that can cause serotonin syndrome

linezolid
tramadol
ondansteron
triptans

114

phenelzine

MAOI

115

washout period after MAOI cessation

allow synthesis of MAO to resume

116

treatment of drug induced parkinsons

antimuscarinics
benzotropine, trihexyphenidyl

117

micturition reflex

parasym s2-4
pontine center
cerebral cortex

118

drugs that can increase lithium levels

hctz
acei
nsaids

119

tuberoinfundibular pathway

connects hypothalamus and pituitary
prolactin/dopamine

120

n. meningitis prophylaxis

rifampin

121

ischemic-hypoxic encephalopathy

wedge shaped areas, esp at watershed regions

122

primary CNS lymphomas

think EBV, AIDs

123

side effect of phenytoin

genearlized LAD

124

what not to take with levodopa therapy

B6, increases metabolism

125

ischemic neurons release

lysosomal enzymes

126

narcolepsy treatment

modafinil

127

nacrolepsy mofa

low levels of orexin/hypocretin

128

primidone

metabolized to phenobarbital

129

diphenyldramine SE

anti-cholinergic SE

130

trazodone AE

pripism

131

head of radius

radial nerve

132

lesion to optic nerve

anopia of one eye

133

lesion to optic chiasma

bitemporal hemianopia

134

lesion to optic tract

CL homonymous hemianopia

135

temporal lesion (MCA)

CL upper quandrantic anopia

136

parietal lesion (MCA)

CL lower quandrantic anopia)

137

PCA infarct

CL hemianopia with macular sparing

138

central scotoma

macular degeneration

139

blood in lateral ventricles

germinal matrix hemorrhage

140

POMC produces

ACTH
MSH
B-endorphins

141

Charcot-Bouchard pseudoaneurysms

HTN, hyaline artersclerosis
small vessels (basal ganglia, thalamus)
sudden onset focal deficits

142

hemorrhagic stroke

intracerebral bleeding
due to HTN, anticoagulation, cancer

143

ischemic stroke

atherosclerotic emboli

144

Conus Medullaris Syndrome

flaccid paralysis of bladder and rectum
saddle anesthesia (S3-S5)

145

Cauda Equina Syndrome

low back pain, radiates to legs
bladder and bowel dysfunction (S3-S5)

146

Simple Partial Seizure Rx

carbamazepine

147

Complex Partial Seizure Rx

carbamazepine

148

Tonic-Clonic Seizure Rx

Phenytoin
Carbamazepine
Valproate

149

Myoclonic Seizure Rx

Valproic Acid

150

Absence Seizure Rx

Ethosuximide
2 - valproate

151

450 INDUCERS

carbamazepine
griseofulvin
phenobarbital, phenytoin
rifampin

152

450 INHIBTORS

Azoles, Cimetidine, Ciprofloxain
Erythomycin, Grapefruit Juice
Isoniazid
Ritonavir

153

paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration

lung, breast, ovary
uterus
lymphoma

154

cerebellar dgen from lung cancer

anti P/Q
anti Hu

155

cerebellar degen from breast and ovarian cancer

anti Yo

156

Alzheimer's atrophy of

hippocampus
temporopariteal lobes

157

hemiballism

flinging mvmts of arm
due to CL subthalamic nuclei

158

lentiform nucleus

Wilson's dz
globus pallidus + putamen

159

internal capusle

lacunar infarcts
pure motor or sensory deficits

160

thalamus insult

bruning or stabbing pain in 1/2 of body

161

Anterior pituitary origin

surface ectoderm

162

meningiomas arise from

archnoid villi

163

meningiomas associated with what histo feature

psassoma bodies

164

meningiomas often compress

parasagital cortex
CL spastic leg paralysis

165

ALS - loss of neurons in

anterior horn
lateral corticospinal tracts

166

hemaglutinin

paramyoxviruses (measles!)

167

Axonal Rxn

cerebellar edema
cell body rounding
peripheral displacement of nucleus
Nissl substance to peripehry

168

Cholinergic Agonists - effects

N/V abd cramps
decrease HR, hypotension
Increase NO: sweating, salivating
decrease intraocular pressure

169

Cholinergic Agonists - examples

Bethanechol
Carbachol, pilocarpine (glaucoma treatment!)

170

what sensory pathway reaches cortex without using thalamus as relay station?

smell

171

B2 agonist - use in ob/gyn

uterine relaxation, can prevent preterm labor
ritodrine
terbutaline

172

double vision when looking down

CN IV

173

serotonin precursor

tryptophan

174

GABA precursor

glutamic acid

175

short acting Benzo's

addictive
triazolam
oxazepam
midazolam

176

what binds GABA receptor

benzos
barb
ETOH

177

Anesthetics - decrease solubility in blood

rapid induction and recovery

178

Anesthetics - increase potentcy

lower MAC
increase solubility in lipids

179

DA Agonists - Ergot

bromocriptine
pergolide

180

DA Agonist - Nonergot

pramipexole
ropinirole

181

drugs that increase DA

amantadine
L-dopa/cardipoa

182

prevent DA breakdown

selegiline (MAO type B inhibitor)
COMT inhibitors (entacapone)

183

curb excess cholinergic activity in parkinson's

bentropine (antimuscarinic)

184

entacapone

prevents DA breakdown/COMT inhibitor
increase amount of levodopa entering brain

185

Triptan MofA

5HT 1B/D agonist
post synaptic serotonin receptor blockade

186

typical antipsychotics

block D2 receptors, increase cAMP

187

high potency typical antipsychotics

Trifluoperazine
Fluphenazine
Haloperidal
extrapyramidal symptoms

188

low potency typical antipsychotics

Chlorpromazine
Thioridazine

189

Venlafazine

SNRI
inhibit SE and NE reuptake
can induce mania

190

SNRI

venlafazine + duloxetine

191

Buproprion

increase NE and DA
seizures esp with high doses + EDs

192

treatment for serotonin syndrome

serotonin receptor antagonist
cyproheptadine

193

Status eptileptic treatment

1) IV benzo
2) phenytoin
3) phenobarbital
4) intubate and put in come

194

Phenytoin MofA

decreases Na current

195

polyhydroaminos

anencephaly
gi obstruction

196

wernickes - which symptom may persist

memory loss

197

MS symptom exacerabtor

heat
decreases axonal transmission

198

left optic nerve lesion

light on left eye: no change
light on right eye: both constrict

199

mu

euphoria
physical dependence
decrease GI motility
resp and card depression

200

kappa

miosis

201

delta

anti-depression

202

nalaxone

greatest effect on mu receptor

203

myotonic dystrophy

duchenne

204

duchenne - physical characteristics

frontal balding
catarcts
gonadal atrophy

205

carbamazepine mofa

blocks Na channels

206

methadone for addiction

long half life

207

synaptophysin stain

neuronal origin

208

fainting mediated by

vagus nerve

209

Neurloptic Malignant syndrome

fever, muscle rigidity
haloperidol

210

edrophonium test

symptom improve -- up meds
no change - too much medication

211

blotchy red fibers on gomori trichrome stain

mitochondrial myopathy

212

NF tumors oirigins

neural crest

213

blood/gas partition coeff

decreased -- poor solubility, also fast rise in partial pressure

214

clozapine

acts on D4
agraulocytosis

215

syringomyelia destroys

ventral white commisure and ventral horns

216

psych drug that causes hypothyroidism

lithium

217

organophophate poisoning -- excess

cholinergic stmulation

218

treatment of organophosphate poisoning

atropine
still risk for muscle paralysis

219

symptoms of organophosphoate posionin

diarrhea, diaphoresis, urination, miosis, bradycardia, bronchospasm, emesis, lacrimation, salviation

220

tb - type of hydrocephalus

communication

221

fexofenadine

2nd generation antihistamine

222

12-28 hrs after T/E

red neurons

223

24-72 hrs after T/E

neutrophilic infiltrate
necrosis

224

3-5 days after T/E

macrophage

225

1-2 weeks after T/E

reactive gliosis
vascular proliferation
liquefactive necrosis

226

1 month after T/E

gial scar

227

ethoxasumide mofa

decreases calcium current

228

Botulinium toxin binds to

Ach containing synaptic vesicles

229

pentazocine

can precipitate withdrawal of opiates
partial agonist/antagonist at mu receptor

230

inhaled anesthetics

increases cerebral blood flow

231

cocaine

inhibits presynaptic reuptake of NE, DA, serotonin

232

fragile x syndrome mutation

causes hypermethylation of FMR1gene and deactivates it

233

vomitting control center

CTZ, medulla

234

thalamic syndrome

CL sensory loss

235

liquefactive necrosis

brain ischemic injury

236

amitriptyline se

anticholinergic SE
urinary retention

237

akathsia

restlessness
antipsychotics AE

238

cardopa/levadopa AE

anxiety, agitation

239

satiety center

VM nucleus of thalamus

240

barbituate metabolism

redistrubution to skeletal muscle and adipose tissue

241

MAOI therapy for

mood reactivity
leaden fatigue
rejection sensitivity
increased sleep and appetite

242

UMN

hyperflexia, babinski, muscle paralysis

243

LMN

muscle atrophy, fasciulations, hyporeflexia

244

TCA related death

due to Na channel inhibit
hypotension, arrhythmia, conduction defects

245

HSV-1 encephalitis

temporal lobe

246

pliocystic astrocytoma

hair-like glial processes
spindle cells
microcysts

247

halothane

causes neuroleptic malignatn syndrome
due to intracellular ca release in skeletal muscle

248

insulin and sympathetics

alpha adrenergic -- decrease/inhibit insulin
beta adrenergics - increase insulin

249

phenoxybenzamine

alpha blocker

250

retinitis pigmentosa

thioridazine

251

hiccups

phrenic nerve

252

hypertensive arteriolar sclerosis

lacunas

253

Type II Arnold Chiari Malformations

macrocepahly/hydrocephalus/enlargement of vnetricles
muscle hypertonicity

254

chlorpromazine SE

corneal deposits

255

ziprasidone SE

prolong QT

256

olanzapone SE

weight gain

257

carbemazepine SE

bone marrow suppression

258

halothane SE

hepatitis

259

CN III palsy in DM, HTN

ischemic neuropathy, sympathetic fibers only

260

first area to be damaged with cerebral ischemia

hippocampus

261

length constant

how far along an axon an electrical impulse can propagate
decrease in MS