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Flashcards in Blood Vessels Deck (173):
1

COX2

inducible

2

Aspirin

irreversibly inhibits COX 1 and 2

3

derivates of common cardinal veins

SVC

4

derivative of truncus arterious

pulmonary trunk
ascending aorta

5

derivative of dorsal aorts

descending aortic a.

6

Conn's Syndrome

primary hyperaldosteronism

7

when you correct DKA

decrease ketone bdies = increase bicarb
k intracellular shift = hypokalemia

8

plaque - proliferation

platelets
PDGF, TGF-beta

9

plaque -SMC

MIGRATE from media to intima

10

Type 1 Dyslipidemias

no atherosclerosis
abd pain (pancreatitis)
maybe xanthomas
due to LPL def (chylomicrons)

11

Type 2 Dyslipidemias

no LDL receptors
atherosclerosis
tubulars xanthomas, corneal arcus, xanthelasma

12

Type 3 Dyslipidemias

VLDL overproduction
pancreatitis

13

transmural inflamm of arteries with fibrinoid necrosis

polyarteritis nodosa

14

varicose veins

increased lower extremity venous pressure

15

manifestations of poor blood flow from varicose veins

superficial venous thrombosis
stasis dermatitis
skin ulcerations
superficial infections
poor wound healing

16

positive FTA-Abs

syphilis

17

amlodipine is a

CCB

18

strawberry hemangiomas

children

19

cherry hemangiomas

adults

20

nitroprusside AE

cyanide toxicity
treat with sulfur

21

IVC formed by

union of common iliac veins

22

age related HTN due to

decrease compliance of aorta (aorta stiffening)
isolated systolic HTN

23

bile acid binding resins AE

hypertriglyceridemia

24

phenoxybenzamine

irreversible alpha 1 and 2 antagonist

25

cliostazol

phosphodiesterase inhibitor (inhibits platelet aggregation)
arterial vasodilator
for intermittent claudication

26

dipyramidole

phosphodiesterase inhibitor (inhibits platelet aggregation)
arterial vasodilator
for intermittent claudication

27

great saphenous vein graft

inferiorlateral to pubic tubercle

28

steady state concentration in first order kinetics

reach in 4-5 half lives

29

niacin mofa

inhibit hepatic VLDL production
inhibits lipolysis in adipose tissue

30

treatment for hypercholestermia

1) statin
2) ezetimbie

31

treatment for hypertriglyceridemia

1) fibrate
2) niacin

32

1st pharyngeal arch

maxillary artery
CN V

33

2nd pharyngeal arch

stapedial and hyoid aa
CN VII

34

3rd pharyngeal arch

Common Carotid a.
proximal portion of Internal carotid a.
CN IX

35

4th pharyngeal arch

left - aortic arch
right - proximal part of right subclavian a.
CN X - superior branch

36

6th pharyngeal arch

ductous arteriousus
CN X - recurrent laryngeal branch

37

CYP450 inducers

BullShit CRAP GPS induces my rage
Barbituates, St john's wort, carbamazepine, rifampin, alcohol, phenytoin, griseofulvin, phenobarbital, sulfonylurea

38

CYP450 inhibitors

VICKS FACE All Over GQ stops ladies in their tracks
Valproate, isoniazide, cimetidine, ketoconazole, sulfonamides, fluconazole, alcohol (acute), chloramphienicol, erythromycin, amiodarone, omperprazole, grapefruit juice, quinidiine

39

orthostatic hypotension

understimulation of alpha one receptors

40

2nd pharyngeal arch - muscles

facial expression

41

3rd pharyngeal arch - muscles

stylopharyngius

42

4th pharyngea arch - muscles

pharynx, soft palate
some laryngeal

43

6th pharyngeal arch - muscles

larynx

44

niacin induced skin flushing and warmth due to

prostaglandins

45

capsaician

reduces pain in PNS by decreasing substance P

46

plaque rupture

MMPs

47

increased CK means

cell membrane damage

48

IVC filter

prevents DVTs

49


losartan

angiotension receptor blocker

50

which arteries does polyarteritis nodosa tend to spare?

pulmonary aa

51

glomangioma

under nail bed
modified smooth muscle cells, invovled in thermoregulation

52

subungal melanoma

under nail bed
pigmented

53

myxomatous changes means

cystic medial degeneration

54

fenoldapam

selective D1 receptor agonist
causes arteriolar dilation

55

streptokinase SE

hemorrhage

56

Low Vd

large molecular wt, charged molecules (hydrophilic), bound to plasma proteins

57

high vd

small molecular wt
lipophilic/hydrophobic/uncharged

58

saddle nose

wegners

59

weak UE pulses

takayasa arteritis

60

efficacy

effect

61

potency

dose

62

genomic imprinting mofa

methylation (add methyl groups to cytosine residues)

63

ACEI induced renal failure due to

efferent arteriolar dilation

64

Ephinephrine effects on HR

dose dependnet, B1

65

Epinephrine effects on SBP

increases
B1 and alpha1

66

Epinephrine effects on DBP

decrease with low dose: B2>alpha1
increase with high dose: alpha1>B2

67

onion like concentri thickening of arteriolar walls

malignant htn

68

NE extravasation

increase alpha1
vasoconstriction
necrosis

69

oseltamivir

neuroaminidase inhibitor
inhibits virion particle RELEASE

70

Trisomy 18

rocker bottom feet, clenched hands
polyhydraminos

71

acyclovir

guanosine analog
activated by thymidine kinase

72

cystic hygroma

neck mass in turners syndrome

73

Foscarnet mofa for different viruses

bind DNA polymerase in HSV
binds RT in HIV

74

inferior thyroid a close to what nerve?

recurrent laryngeal nerve

75

recurrent laryngeal nerve innervates

everything except crycothyroid

76

superior thyroid a close to what nerve?

superior laryngeal nerve

77

superior laryngeal nerve innervates

cricothyroid

78

mono also associated with

nasopharyngeal carcinoma

79

cricothyotomy

go thru cricothyroid membrane

80

congenital torticollis due to

intrauterine malposition

81

high frequency sounds heard

base of cochlea (near oval and sound windows)
thin, rigid basilar membrane

82

low frequency sounds hear

apex of cochlea (near helicotrema)

83

Weber Test

foreheard
louder sound on one side is abnormal
localize with conductive, opposite with sensineural

84

Rhine Test

normal -- hear better at external auditory meatus
abnormal - hear better at mastoid process
abnormal in affected ear with conductive hearing loss

85

Conductive Hearing Loss

Rine test would be abnormal in affect ear
Weber would localize

86

Sensineural Hearing Loss

Rhine test would be normal in both
Weber would localized to unaffected ear

87

loud noise damages

organ of corti

88

pterion

near middle menigeal a which is branch of maxillary

89

bruises

petechiae < purpura < ecchymoses

90

acantholysis

pemphigus vulgaris

91

melanocytic nevus

mole

92

ephelis

freckle

93

psoriasis

decrease granulosum
increased spinosum

94

seborrheic keratosis

stuck on/brown

95

Pemphigus vulgaris

IgG against desmosomes
acantholysis
often begins in mouth

96

urticara

dermal edema

97

Bullous Pemphigoid

IgG against hemidesmosomes (not in mouth)

98

IgA at tips of dermal papillae

dermatitis herpetiformis

99

erythema multiforme

associated with infections (HSV, mycoplasma)

100

melanocytes

neural crest origin

101

apocrine glands

malodorous

102

actinic keratosis

basal cell atypia, hyperkeratosis and parakeratosis

103

Lichen Planus associations

Hep C
lymphocytes at dermal-epidermal junction

104

sunburn due to

UVB

105

UVA

tanning, photoaging

106

PABA esters

only effective against UVB

107

basal cell carcinoma

sun exposed areas
palisading nuclei
doesn't metastasize

108

squamous cell carcinoma

keratin pearls
can spread to lymph nodes

109

melanoma

BRAF kinase mutations
S-100 marker

110

melanoma - risk of malignancy

vertical growth/depth

111

vemurafenib

BRAF kinase inhibitor

112

breast retraction

coopers ligament infiltration

113

naficillin use

skin and soft tissue infections
no MRSA

114

Isotretinon

synethic isomer of ATRA
avoid pregnancy

115

Calcipotriene

vit D analog (VIT d is nuclear transcription factor)

116

topical corticosteroid use causes

atrophy of dermis

117

keloids

excessive collagen formation

118

contact dermatitis

spongiosis

119

terbafine

inhibition of sqalene epoxidase

120

foreign body causes

granulomatous inflamm

121

VZV histo

multinucleated inclusion bearing giant cells

122

lepromin skin test

CD4 Th1 response
+ tuberculoid leprosy

123

xanthelosma

also in PBC due to increased cholesterol

124

Tumor Suppressor Genes

P53, Rb, BRCA1, APC

125

Oncogenes

Abl, C-myc, L-myc, N-myc, RET, HER2/neu, bcl2

126

Glioblastoma multiforme

pseudopalisading necrosis - necrosis

127

Anaplastic

complete lack of differentiation
no resemblence to original tissue
giant cells

128

Peau d' orange

lymphatic obstruction

129

follicular lymphoma - symptoms

indolent
remissions and recurrences

130

dysplasia

reversible

131

Rb

regulates G1-->S
hyperphosphorylation inactivates

132

bromodeoxyuridine

high grade/poor prognosis in brain cancer

133

MRD1

Pglycoprotein
ATP dependent efflux pump
likes hydrophobic compounds

134

Angiogenesis

VEGF
FGF

135

Invasion

decrease E cadherines
increase MMPs

136

Cachexia

TNF alpha

137

Oral Contraceptives

decrease risk of ovarian and endometrial cancers

138

Ovarian cancer risk decreased by

oral contraceptives
multiparity
breast feeding

139

Adhesion

integrins bind to fibronectin, collagen, laminin

140

Her2Neu

intracellular tyrosine kinase activity
EGFR (increased cellular proliferation)

141

CD8 toxicity

apoptosis

142

apoptosis

capases = cysteine-aspartic acid proteases

143

MTX

folic acid analog
inhibits dihydrofolate reductase
myelosuppresion rescue with folinic acid

144

leucovorin

folinic acid

145

5-FU

pyrimidine canlog
rescue with thymidine

146

Cytarabine

pyrimidine analog

147

6MP

purine analog
activated by HGPRT
metabolized by xanthine oxidase

148

Dactinomycin

intercalates in DNA
Wilms tumor, Ewings sarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma

149

Doxorubicin

intercalates DNA
cardiotoxicity

150

Dexrazoxane

prevent doxorubicin toxicity

151

Bleomycin

DNA breaks
testicular cancer, Hodgkins
pulmonary fibrosis

152

Cyclophosphamide

alkylating agens
mesna to prevent hemorrhagic cystitis

153

Nitrosoueas

CNS tumors
alkylating agents

154

Busulfan

alkylating agent
pulmonary fibrosis toxicity

155

Alkylating agents

cyclophosphamides, nitrousoureas, busulfan

156

Purine Analogs

6MP, fludarabine, cladribine

157

Pyrmidine analogs

5FU, capecitabine, cytabine, gemcitabine

158

Vincristine/Vinblastine

alkloids, M phase, inhibits MT polymeraziation
neutrotoxicity

159

Paciltaxel

hyperstabilize microtubules
ovary, breast carcinomas
M phase

160

Cisplatin/carboplatin

cross link DNA
nephrotoxicity
acoustic nerve damage

161

Cisplantin - prevent toxicity with

amifostine and aggressive hydration

162

Etoposide

inhibits top II

163

Tamoxifen

SERM

164

Trastuzumab

her-2

165

rituximab

CD20

166

bevacizumab

VEGF

167

cladribine

purine/adenosine analog
hair cell leukemia

168

Rabies Vaccine

killed vaccine

169

anorectal carcinoma

HPV

170

CD 14

monocyte/macrophage lineage

171

sarcoidosis response

TH1

172

FAD needed for

succinate DH

173

MG - type of hypersensitivity

type II