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Flashcards in Neurology Deck (26):
1

What migraine population needs to be on prophylactic medication?

women with frequent migraines with aura to prevent CVA

2

Migraines with aura are associated with an increased risk of what disease?

ischemic stroke; especially in younger women and if they are on birth control

3

What are some associated symptoms that you see with giant cell arteritis other than the headache?

jaw claudication, fatigue, weight loss, and low grade fever. Up to 50% of patients have a h/o polymyalgia rheumatica..

4

What do you think of when you hear the buzzwords: dementia with gaze palsy and falls?

PSP - progressive supranuclear palsy

5

What is the most common cause of dementia in younger patients?

AIDS

6

Which anti epileptic drug is more likely to cause neural tube defects? Which are teratogenic?

valproate
Teratogenic: phenytoin, phenobarbital, topiramate, carbamazepine, valproic acid

7

The teratogenic risk of AEDs is decreased by what vitamin?

folic acid

8

What virus causes PML?

progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy is caused by the JC virus; PML is seen in patients with severe T cell immunodeficiences

9

How do you get neurocysticercosis?

From ingesting food or water contaminated with taenia solium

10

What diagnosis should you consider in an AIDS patient with progressive headache, cognitive impairment, and/or meningeal signs?

cryptococcal meningitis

11

What kind of aphasia is a Broca's aphasia?

Expressive - they understand but have trouble forming words

12

What kind of aphasia is a Wernicke's aphasia?

Receptive - they cannot comprehend written or spoken language; they often speak in invented words called neologisms

13

What are some complications of SAH?

rebleeding, vasospasm, communicating hydrocephalus, and seizures

14

A patient with RA presents after surgery with a focal neuro deficit. What happened?

Probably had c1-c2 spinal cord trauma induced by intubation; pt probably had chronic asymptomatic c1-c2 subluxation

15

A person with acromegaly has nocturnal awakening due to hand pain and paresthesias. What does this person have?

carpel tunnel; there is an association between the 2

16

You have a hiker who presents with new onset foot drop. What should you be thinking?

Mononeuritis multiplex from lyme disease

17

A person gets a vaccine or virus. They develop pain in the shoulder with radiation to the arm, neck, and back. Within hours, the shoulder muscles and proximal arm muscles become weak. What is this?

neuralgic amyotrophy

18

What should you think if a diabetic pt has a 3rd cranial neuropathy with pupillary dilatation?

think compression of the 3rd cranial nerve by an aneurysm of the posterior communicating artery; get MRI/MRA

19

A diabetic taking metformin develops sensory changes. Why?

They have B12 malabsorption due to the metformin and have developed neuropathy as a result

20

What type of tumor is associated with myasthenia gravis?

Thymomas and thymic hyperplasia

21

Your patient was just diagnosed with Lambert-Eaton. What should you look for now?

A small cell lung cancer, or other malignancy

22

_________ is a classic cause of orbital myopathy

Influenza

23

Natalizumab (monoclonal AB used to treat MS) is associated with what disease?

PML - progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy

24

wernicke triad

ophthalmoplegia, ataxia, and confusion

25

What diseases are associated with Bell's palsy?

acute HIV, infection with HSV, infection with VZV, and early Lyme disease

26

What are some causes of UMN and LMN findings in the same patient?

ALS, syringomyelia (LMN in upper limbs and UMN in lower), neurosyphilis and tabes dorsalis, subacute combined degeneration of the cord (vit B12), cervical spondylosis, and Friedreich ataxia.