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Flashcards in Neurons/Spinal Nerves Deck (27)
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1

nissl substance

RER
synthesize NT or precursor

2

anterograde transport

moves away from cell body to terminal
transport NT/precursors
mediated by kinesin
faster than retrograde

3

retrograde transport

moves toward cell body
recycle garbage, excess NT
mediated by dynein
half rate of kinesin

4

outside things transported retrogradely

polio, rabies, (motor)
herpes (sensory)

5

outside things transported anterogradely

rabies, (motor) --> salivary glands
herpes (sensory) --> painful vesicles

6

glutamate cell bodies/projections

entire CNS
entire CNS

7

GABA cell bodies/projections

entire CNS
entire CNS/Retina

8

glutamate actions

excitatory NT
modulation of synaptic plasticity
activation of 2nd messenger sys

9

GABA actions

inhibitory NT

10

ACh cell bodies/projections (PNS)

ventral horns --> skeletal muscle
ANS preganglionic nuc --> autonomic ganglia
Para ganglia (postgang) --> glands, SM, cardiac
basal forebrain --> cerebral cortex
pontomesencephalic region --> thalamus, cerebellum, pons, medulla

11

ACh actions

muscle contraction
ANS fxns
Para fxns
neuromodulation (memory consolidation, sleep/wake cycles)

12

ACh path for muscle contraction

ventral horn --> skeletal muscle --> nicotinic --> muscle contraction

13

ACh path for ANS

pregang nuclei --> autonomic gang --> nicotinic --> ANS fxns

14

ACh path for para fxns

para ganglia (postgang) --> gland/SM/cardiac --> muscarinic --> para fxn

15

ACh path for neuromodulation (memory consolidation)

basal forebrain --> cerebral cortex --> muscarinic and nicotinic subtypes --> neuromod

16

ACh path for neuromodulation (sleep/wake cycles)

pontomesencephalic region --> thalamuc, cerebellum, pons, medulla --> musc and nic subtypes --> neuromod

17

myelin forming glial cells

oligodendrocytes: myelinate up to 50 segments of 50 diff axons (CNS)
schwann: myelinate 1 segment of 1 axon (PNS)

18

autoimmune demyelinating diseases

MS (oligo)
guillan-barre (schwann)

19

MS mechanism

oligo-formed myelin becomes inflammed and impairs transmission in CNS
plaques form where demyelinating

20

MS Sx

symptoms can be many places (and not symmetrical) and may get worse or better in time

21

CN/SN affected my MS

only optic nerve (CN II)

22

MS eye problems

most common cause of optic neuritis (blurry vision)

23

MS CSF

up gamma globulin
up T-lymphocytes
normal glucose

24

guillain-barre mech

schwann-formed myelin becomes inflammed following a resp or GI illness, blocking transmission

25

guillain-barre sx

only affect motor axons (weakness in limbs)
usually symmetrical
ascending

26

guillain-barre sx

only affect motor axons (weakness in limbs)
usually symmetrical
ascending

27

regeneration of nerve

only in PNS (schwann)
really slow - 1-2 mm/day