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Flashcards in CNS organization/development Deck (40)
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1

different neuro-directions

@ an anglerostral (ant)caudaldorsal (superior in brain, regular in cord)ventral (inf in brain, regular in cord)

2

# cranial and spinal nerves

12 CN31 SN

3

tract akas

pedunclefasciculuslemniscus

4

anterograde

away from cell bodyAPs, transport

5

retrograde

toward cell bodytransport

6

gastrulation time

3rd week

7

sonic hedgehog

inducertranscription factorsignaling molecule released from notochord

8

stages of neurolation

1. induce ecto over noto to thicken and form neural plate2. plate invaginates --> neural groove3. deepen + form neural crests4. crests merge @ midline --> hollow neural tube

9

nervous system germ layer origin

ectoderm

10

CNS origin

neural tube

11

neural tube defect markers

high AFP (alpha fetoprotein)high AChE (acetylcholinesterase)

12

neural fold --> neural tube steps

middle closes first (day 23)rostral next (25)caudal last (27)

13

neural tube symmetry

dorsal half - Alar plate - sensoryventral half - basal plate - motor

14

neuro development - primary vesicles

prosencephalon (forebrain) mesencephalon (midbrain)rhombencephalon (hindbrain)

15

neuro development - secondary vesicles

pro --> telencephalon, diencephalonmesencephalon --> mesencephalonrhom --> metencephalon, myelencephalon

16

telencephalon -->

cerebral hemispheresmost of basal ganglialateral ventricles

17

diencephalon -->

thalamushypothalamuspineal glandretinaoptic nervethird ventricle

18

mesencephalon -->

midbraincerebral aqueduct

19

metencephalon -->

ponscerebellum4th ventricle

20

myelencephalon -->

medullafourth ventricle

21

epithalamus aka

pineal gland

22

thalamus

means inner chamberrelay to cortex

23

pineal gland aka

epithalamus

24

myelin making cells

schwann cells (PNS)oligodendrocytes (CNS)

25

MS

autoimmunedemyelinating (affect oligodendrocytes) --> CNS and optic nerve

26

neuroectoderm (neural tube) -->

CNSoptic nerve/retinapineal glandneurohypophysisastrocytesoligodendrocytes

27

neuroectoderm (neural crest) -->

PNSadrenal medullagangliamelanocytesschwann cellsmeningespharyngeal arch cartilageodontoblastsparafollicular cellsaorticopulmonary septumendocardial cushions

28

anencephaly

failure of anterior neuropore to close (rostral)brain doesn't developpolyhydramniosincompatible w/ lifeAFP and AChE up

29

spina bifida types

spina bifida occultaspina bifida w/ meningocelespina bifida w/ meningomyelocelespina bifida w/ myeloschisis

30

spina bifida occulta

posterior neuropore doesn't close (+ doesn't induce bone growth)mildest formno vert around cordno up in AFPtuft of hair over lumbar