NEUROPHYSIOLOGY Flashcards Preview

BRS (PHYSIO) > NEUROPHYSIOLOGY > Flashcards

Flashcards in NEUROPHYSIOLOGY Deck (253)
Loading flashcards...
1

set of tpatways to and from the CNS  that innervates and regulates smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands

Autonomic Nervous system

2

3 divisions of ANS

Sympathetic

Parasympathetic

Enteric

3

[ANS] synapses between neurons are made in the__________

autonomic ganglia

4

located in in or near the effector organs

Parasympathetic ganglia

5

Located in the paravertebral chain

Sympathetic ganglia

6

Have their cell bodies in the CNS adn synapse in the autonomic ganlia

Preganglionic neurons

 

7

Preganglionic neurons of the sympathetic nervous system originate in the spinal cord segments ________

T1-L3 or thoracolumbar region

8

Preganglionic neurons of the parasympathetic nervous system originate int he nuclei of cranial nerves and in the spinal cord segments ________

S2 to S4 or craniosacral region

9

_________ of both devisions of ANS have their cell bodies in the autonomic ganglia ans synapse on effector organs

Postganglionic neurons

10

specialized ganglion of the sympathetic nervous system 

Adrenal medulla

  • preganglionic fibers synapse directlt in chromaffin cells
    • secretes epinephrine (80%) and norepinephrine (20%)

11

tumor of the adrenal medula that secretes excessive amount sof catecholamnes and is associated with increased excretion of 3 methoxy-4-hydroxy mandelic acid (VMA)

Pheochromocytoma

12

______release norepinephine as the neurotransmitter

Adrenergic neurons

13

________ release ACh weheter in the SNS or PNS as the neurotranmistter

Cholinergic neurons

14

includes some postganglionic parasympathetic neurons of the GIT, which releasse substance P, vasoactive intestinal peptide

Nonadrenergic, noncholinergic neurons

15

Organization of the autonomic Nervous system

16

Sympathetic or Parasympathetic

Short preganglionic nerve axon

Sympathetic

17

Sympathetic or Parasympathetic

long oreganglionic nerve axon

Parasympathetic

18

Sympathetic or Parasympathetic

Nicotinic receptors in ganglion

BOTH

19

Sympathetic or Parasympathetic

Muscarinic receptor in effector organs

Parasymapthetic

  • alpha 1, alpha 2, B1 and B2 = Sympathetic
  • nicotinic = somatic *

20

Signalling pathways and mechanisms forAutonomic receptors

21

Adrenergic receptors

alpha 1 

alpha 2

Beta 1

Beta 2

22

Cholinergic receptors

NM (N1)

NN (N2)

M1

M2

M3

23

located on vascular smooth muscles of the skin and splanchic regions, the GI, and bladder sphincters, and the radial muscle of the iris

Alpha 1 

  • Produce excitation (contraction or constriction)

24

Mechanism of action of alpha 1 receptors

Gq protein, stimulation of phospholipase C and increase IP3 and intracellular calcium

25

Located on the sympathetic postganglionic nerve termnals (autoreceptors), platelets, fat cells, and the walls of the GI tract (heteroreceptors)

alpha 2

  • often produce INHIBITION (relaxation or dilation)

26

Mechanism of action of alpha 2 receptors

Gi protein, inhibition of adenylate cyclase and decrease in cAMP

27

located in the SA node, AV node, and ventricular muscle of the heart

B1 receptors

  • Produce EXCITATION (increased heart rate, increased conduction velocity, increased contractility)
  • sensitive to both NE and E.
  • more sensitive than alpha 1

28

Mechanism of action of B1 receptors

Gs protein, stimulation of adenyate cyclase and increase in cAMP

29

located on vascular smooth muscle of Skeletal muscle, bronchial smooth muscle, and the walls of GIT and bladder

B2 receptors

  • Porduce RELAXATION (dilation of vascular smooth muscle, dilation of brochioles, relaxation of the bladder wall)
  • More sensitive to EPINEPHRINE than NE
  • more sensitive to EPINEPHRINE than alpha 1

30

Mechanism of Action of B2 receptors

Gs protein, stimulation of adenylate cyclase and increase in cAMP (similar to B1)