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Flashcards in RENAL and ACID-BASE Deck (177)
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1

Total body wayer is approximately ___________

60% of body weight

2

The percentate of TBW is higherst in ___________

newborns and adult males

  • Lowest in adult females

3

2/3 of TBW

Intracellular Fluid

4

Major cations of ICF are _______

Potassium and Magnessium

5

The major anions of ICF are

Protein and organic phosphates

6

1/3 of TBW

Extracellular fluid

7

The major cation of ECF is ________

sodium

8

The major anions of ECF are ______ and _________

Chloride and HCO3

9

______ is 1/4 of ECF

Plasma

(the major plasma proteins are albumins and globulins)

10

_________fluid is 3/4 of the ECF

Intestitial fluid

  • The composition is the same as that of plasma except that it has little protein
    • Ultrafiltrate of plasma

11

A known amount of a substance is given whose volume of distribution is the body of fluid compartment of interest

The substance is allowed to equilibriate

The conentration is measured an the volme of distribution is calculated

Dilution method

12

______ marker for TBW that distributes wherever water is found

titrated water

13

_______marker for ECF because it is a large molecule that cannot cross cell membranes and is therefore excluded from the ICF

Mannitol

14

Marker for plasma volume because it is a dye that inds to albumin and is therefore confined to the plasma compatment

Evans blue

15

Body water and ody fluid Compartments

16

Concentration of solute particles

Osmolarity

Plasma osmolarity is estimated as :

2 x Na + glucose/18 + BUN/2.8

17

At steady state, ECF osmolarity and ICF osmolarity are _____________

equal

18

To achieve osmolarity equality ________ shifts between ECF and ICF

water

19

Infusion of isotonic NaCl (addition of isotonic fluid)

also called as isosmotic volume expansion

  • ECF volume increase, but bo change occurs in the osmolarity  of ECF or ICF
  • Plasma protein concentration and heamtocrit decreases
  • Arterial blood pressure increases due to ECF volume increases

20

Diarrhea - loss of isotonic fluid

also called as isosmotic volume contraction

  • ECF volume decreases, but no change occurs in the osmolarity
  • Plasma portein concentraion and hematocrit increases because of loss of ECF concentrates the portein and RBCs
  • Arterial blood pressure decrease because ECF volume decreases

21

Excessive NaCl intake - addition of NaCl

Also caled hyperosmotic volume expansion

  • Theosmolarity of ECF increases because osmoles (NaCl) hace been added to the ECF
  • Water shifts from ICF to ECF. As a result of this shift, ICF osmolarity increases until equals that of ECF
  • ECF volume increases and ICF volume decreases
  • Plasma protein concentration and hematocrit decrease because of theincrease in ECF volume

22

Changes in voume and Osmolarity of body fluids

23

Sweating in a desert - loss of water

Also called as hyperosmotic volume contraction

  • The osmolarity of ECF increases because swert is hyposmotic (relatively more water than salt is lost)
  • ECF volume decreases because of the loss of volume in the sweat. Water shits oit of the ICF, ICF osmolarity increases and ICF volume decreases
  • Plasma protein concnetration increases because of the decrease in ECF volume. Although Hematocrit might alsobe expected o increase, it remains unchanged because water shifts out of the RBCs

24

SIADH - gain of water

Hyposmotic volume expansion

  • the osmolarity of ECF decreases because excess water is retained
  • ECF volume increases. Water shidts in to thecells, ICF osmolarity decreases until it equals ECF. ICF volume increases
  • Plasma protein concentration decreasesbecause of the increase in ECF volume. Hematocrit remains unchanged because water shifts into theRBCs

25

Adrenocortical insufficiency - loss of NaCl

also called hyposmotic volume  contraction

  • The osmolarity of ECF decreases. asa result of the lackof aldosteron, theere is decreased NaCl reabsorption. Kidney excrete more NaCl than water
  • ECF volume decreases. water shifts into the cells; asaresult of this, ICF osmolarity decreases until it equals ECF osmolarity and ICF volume increases
  • Plasma protein concentration increases because of the decrease inECF volume. HCT increases
  • Arterial blood pressure decrease because of the decrease in ECF volume

26

Indicates the volume of plasma cleared of  substance per unit time

Clearance

 

27

RBF is ______% of the cardiac output

25%

28

RBF is _______ proportional to the pressure difference between the renal arter and the renal vein

Directly propotional

  • inversely proportional to the resistance of the renal vasculature

29

__________of arterioles leads to decrease in RBF

Vasoconstriction

  • produced by the activation of the sympathetic nervou system and angiotensin II
    • at low concentration, ATII preferentially constricts efferent

30

____________ dilate efferent arterioles and produce  decrease in GFR

Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors