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Which of the following lung volumes or capacities can be measure by spirometry?

  • A. FRC
  • B. Physologic Dead space
  • C. RV
  • D. TLC
  • E. VC

Vital capacity


An infant born prematurely in gestatinal week 25 has neonatal respiratory distress syndrome. what is expected in this patient

Collapse of the small alveoli


In which vascular bed does hypoxia cause vasonconstriction



A 12 y/o boy has a severe asthmatic attack with wheeing. He experiences rapid breathing and becomes cyanotic. his arterial PO2 is 60 mmHg and PCO2 is 30 mmHg

Which of the following is true about the patient

His arterial PCO2 is lower than normal because hypoxemia is causing him to hyperventilate



A 12 y/o boy has a severe asthmatic attack with wheeing. He experiences rapid breathing and becomes cyanotic. his arterial PO2 is 60 mmHg and PCO2 is 30 mmHg

to treat this aptient, thy physician should administer

a B2 agonist


True during inspiration

Intrapleural pressure is more negative that it is during expiration


Which volume remains constant inthe lungs after a tidal volume is expired

Functional resudual capacity


 35 y/o man has a vital capacity of 5 L, a tidal volume of 0.5 L an IC of 3.5 L and a functional residual capacity of 2.5 L. what is his ERV

1.5 L


IC includes VT and IRV


Whe a person is standing, blood flow in the lungs

highest at the base because that is where the difference between aarterial and venous pressure is greatest


Which of the ff is illustrated in the graph showing volume versus pressure in the lung-chest wall systems?

When airway pressure is zero (atmospheric),, the volume of the combined system is the functional residual capacity


Which of the following is the siteof highest airway resistance?

Medium sized bronchi


A 49 y/o man has a pulmonary embolis, that completely blcokeds blood flow to his left lug. as a result....___

Alveolar PO2 in theleft lung will be approximatel equal to the PO2 in inspired air


in the HODC shown the shift from curve A to curve B could be cause by

Strenuous exercise


The shift from curve A to B is associated with

Increased P50


Which volume remains constant in the lungs after a maximal expiration

Residual volume


Compared with the sytemic circulation, the pulmonary cirulation has a

Lower resistance


a healthy 65 y/o man with VT of 0.45L has a breathing frequency of 16. his arterial PCO2 is 41 mmHg and the PCO2 of his expired air is 35 mmHg. What is his alveolar ventilation?

6.14 L/min

Alveolar ventialtion is the difference between tidal volume and dead space multiplied by breathing frequency

Dead space is Vt multiplied by the differencce between arterial PCO2 and expired PCO2 divided by arterial PCO2

  • Deadspace = 0.45 x (41-35/41) = 0.066 L
  • Alveolar ventilation = 0.45 L - 0.066 L x 16


Compared with the apex of the lng, the base of the lung has

a higher pulmonary capillary PCO2


Hypoxemia produces hyperventialtion by a direct effect on the 

carotid and aortic body chemoreceptors


Which of the ff changes occurs during strenuous excercise?

Ventilation rate and oxygen consumption increase to the same extent


If an area of the lung is not ventilated becaues of bronchial obstruction, the pulmonary capillary blood serving that area will have a PO2 that is

equal to mixed venous O2


In transprt of CO2 from th tissues to the lungs which of the following occurs in venous blood?

Conversion of CO2 and H2O to H+ and HCO3 in the red blood cells


Which of the ff causes hypoxia is characterized by a decreased arterial PO2 and an increased A-a gradient

Right to left cardiac shunt


A 42y/o woman with severe pulmonary fibrosis is evaluated by her physician and has the following arterial blood gases: 

  • pH = 7.48
  • PaO2 = 55
  • PaCO2 = 32

The decreased PaO2 stimulates breathing bia peripheral chemoreceptors


A 38 year old woman moves with her family from New York  City (sea level) to leadville colorado (10, 200 feet above sea level0). which of the following will occur as a result of  residing at high altitude

Shift to the right of the hemoglobin-Oxygen dissociation curve


The pH of venous blood is only slightly more acidic than the pH of arterial blood because

The H+ generated from CO2 and H20 is buffered by deoxyhemoglobin in venous blood


In maximal expiration, the total volume expired

Vital capacity


A person with a ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) defec has hypoxemia and is treated with supplemental Oxygen. The supplemental oxygen will be most helpful if the person's predominant V/Q defecct is

low V/Q


Person with pulmonary fibrosis