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Flashcards in RESPIRATORY Deck (145)
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1

The volume inspired or expired with each normal breath

Tidal volume (Vt)

2

Volume that can be inspired over and above the tidal volume

used during exercise

Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV)

3

The volume that can be expired after the expiration of  a tidal volume

Expiratory reserve volume

4

The vlume that remains in the lungs after a maximal expiration

cannot be measured by spirometry

Residual volume

5

2  types of  dead space

Anatomic

Physiologic

6

The volue of the conducting pathways

Anatomic pathway (approximately 150 mL)

7

functional measurement

defined as the volume of the lungs that does not participate in gas exhange,

approximately equal to the anatomic dead space in normal lungs.

Physiologice dead space

  • may be greater than the anatomic dead space in lung diseases in twhich there are V/Q defects

8

Physiologic dead space can be calcutated by this equation

9

10

Lung volumes and capacity

11

Minute ventilation is expressed as _______

Minute ventilation = Vt x RR

12

Alveolar Ventilation (VA) is expressed as ________

VA = (VT - VD) x RR

13

The sum of tidal volume and IRV

Inspiratory capacity

14

Sum of ERV and RV

the volume remaining in the lungs after a tidal volume is expired

Includes RV, cannot be measured by spirometry

Functional residual capacity (FRC)

15

Sum of tidal volume, IRV, ERV

the volume of air that can be forcibly expired after a maximal inspiration

Vital capacity, or forced vital capacity

16

Sum of all four lung volumes.

The volume in the lungs after a maximal inspiration

includes RV, so  it cannot be measured by spirometry

Total lung capacity

17

the volume of air that can be expired in the first second of a forced maximal expiration

Forced expiratory volume (FEV1)

normally 8% if the forced vital capcacity

(FEV1 / FVC) = 0.8

18

in obstructive disease, such as asthma and COPD, FEV1 and FVC are ______

Reduced

  • FEV1 is reduced more than FVC
  • FEV1/FVC = decreased

19

In restrictive lung disease, such as fibrois, both FEV1 and FVC are _______

Reduced

  • FVC is reduced more
  • FEV1/FVC = increased

20

The most imporatnt muscle of inspiration

Diaphragm

  • when the diaphragm contracts, the abdominal contents are pushed downward, and the ribs are lifted upward and outward, increasing the volume of the thoracic cavity

21

Not used for inspiration during normal quiet brething

used during exercise and in respiratory distress

External intercosatal and accessory muscles

22

Expiration is (active or passive)

Passive

23

Push the diaphragm up and push air out of the lungs

Abdominal muscles

24

Pull the ribs downward and inward

Internal intercostal muscles

25

Analogous to capacitance in the CVS

Distensibility of the lungs and chest walls

 

Compliance

26

Compliance is ______ related to elastance

Inversely

27

Compliance of the lungs

  • Transmural pressure is alveolar pressure minus intrapleural pressure
  • Whenthe pressure outside the lungs is negattive, lung lungs EXPAND and lung volume INCREASES
  • In the middle range of pressures,
    • Compliance is GREATEST and the lungs are most distensible
  • At high expanding pressures
    • Compliance is lowest, the lungs are least distensible and the curve Flattens

28

Inflation of the lungs follows a different curve than deflation of the lungs (expiration); this difference is called ___________

hysteresis

  • due to the need to overcome surface tenson forces when inflating

29

Compliance of the combined lung-chest wall system

  • Compliance of the lung chest wall system  is less than of the lungs alone or the chest wall along (slope is flatter)
  • At rest, Lung volume is at FRC and the pressure in the airways and lungs is qual to atmospheric pressure (0)
    • collapsing force of the lungs
    • expanding force of the chest wall
    • interpleural pressure is NEGATIVE

30

In a  patient with emphysema, lung compliance is _____________

Increased

  • higher FRc
  • patient's chest becomes barrel shaped