Neurotransmission and neurotransmitter Flashcards Preview

Pharmacotherapeutics I > Neurotransmission and neurotransmitter > Flashcards

Flashcards in Neurotransmission and neurotransmitter Deck (31):
1

Central Nervous System

Brain and spinal
Relays and processes signals received from the peripheral nervous system

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Peripheral nervous system

Nerves outside the CNS

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Effect division of CNS

Neurons carry signals away from CNS

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Afferent Division of CNS

Brings data from the periphery to the CNS

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Peripheral nervous system

Divided into Autonomic (involuntary) and sensory and somatic (voluntary)

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Autonomic Nervous System

Sympathetic- fight or flight
Parasympathetic- rest and digest

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Physiological afferents

Sensory neuron follow parasympathetic

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Cardiovascular afferents

Baroreceptors respond to changed in BP located in aortic arch and carotid sinus

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Respiratory afferents

Chemoreceptors respond to changes in CO2 or O2, carotid bodies and aortic bodies respond to decreasing O2

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Gastrointestinal Afferents

Provides feelings of fullness for the stomach, colon, and urinary bladder.

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Pain afferents

Nociceptive neurons follow sympathetic nerves

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Efferent- somatic motor (volunatary)

Skeletal muscle

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Efferent- autonomic (involuntary)

Heart, blood vessels, exocrine glands, smooth muscle, and other visceral organs.

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Preganglionic neuron

CNS cell body synapses in ganglion (Myelinated)

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Postganglionic neuron

Cell body originates in ganglion, terminates in effector organ (Non-myelinated)

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Primary role of ANS

Homeostasis or maintenance of constant internal environment.
Provide appropriate response to external stimuli

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ANS sympathetic

Flight or flight- dominates an individual under stress and mobilizes energy stores.

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ANS parasympathetic

Energy conserving, dominates when a person is a at rest

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AND enteric

Innervates GI tract, pancreas, and gallbladder. Controls motility, exocrine and endocrine secretions, and microcirculation of GI tract

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Local mediators

Act locally, rapidly destroyed and don't enter the blood. Ex histimine, and prostaglandins

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Hormones

Secreted by endocrine glands into the blood and exerts effects on targets throughout the body

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Neurotransmitters

Chemicals released from nerve terminals, diffuse across the synaptic cleft and bind membrane receptors or target cells.

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5 keys steps in neurotransmission

Synthesis of neurotransmitter
Storage of neurotransmitter
Release of neurotransmitter
Recognition of neurotransmitter
Metabolism of neurotransmitter

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Neurotransmitter release

Threshold voltage is reached in the neuron and an action potential is initiated
Depolarization of nerve terminal ending causes influx of CA, which causes the neurotransmitter filled vesicles to fuse with the membrane dumping the contents into the synaptic cleft

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Neurotransmitters bind to

Post synaptic ligand gated channel receptors (cause excitatory oh inhibitory postsynaptic potentials) , post synaptic metabotropic receptors (cause second messenger cascades), and presynaptic receptors (Regulate neurotransmitter release).

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Neurotransmitter receptors terminated by

degradation of neurotransmitter by enzyme in synaptic cleft, uptake by presynaptic transporters, or intracellular enzymes that deactivate second messengers.

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Types of neurotransmitters

Norepinephrine, acetylcholine, dopamine, serotonin, histamine, adenosine, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glycine, and glutamate.

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PNS- Parasympathetic

Synthesizes and uses Ache and is called cholinergic interacting with muscarinic and nicotinic receptors

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PNS-Sympathetic

Synthesizes and uses norepinephrine (NE) and is called adrenergic interacting with alpha adrenergic and beta adrenergic receptors.

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ANS predominant tone -SYMPATHETIC

Arterioles, veins, and sweat glands

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ANS predominant tone- PARASYMPATHETIC

Veins, heart, iris, ciliary muscles, GI tract, urinary bladder, and salivary glands.