Flashcards in Neurotransmission and neurotransmitter Deck (31)
Central Nervous System
Brain and spinal
Relays and processes signals received from the peripheral nervous system
Peripheral nervous system
Nerves outside the CNS
Effect division of CNS
Neurons carry signals away from CNS
Afferent Division of CNS
Brings data from the periphery to the CNS
Peripheral nervous system
Divided into Autonomic (involuntary) and sensory and somatic (voluntary)
Autonomic Nervous System
Sympathetic- fight or flight
Parasympathetic- rest and digest
Sensory neuron follow parasympathetic
Baroreceptors respond to changed in BP located in aortic arch and carotid sinus
Chemoreceptors respond to changes in CO2 or O2, carotid bodies and aortic bodies respond to decreasing O2
Provides feelings of fullness for the stomach, colon, and urinary bladder.
Nociceptive neurons follow sympathetic nerves
Efferent- somatic motor (volunatary)
Efferent- autonomic (involuntary)
Heart, blood vessels, exocrine glands, smooth muscle, and other visceral organs.
CNS cell body synapses in ganglion (Myelinated)
Cell body originates in ganglion, terminates in effector organ (Non-myelinated)
Primary role of ANS
Homeostasis or maintenance of constant internal environment.
Provide appropriate response to external stimuli
Flight or flight- dominates an individual under stress and mobilizes energy stores.
Energy conserving, dominates when a person is a at rest
Innervates GI tract, pancreas, and gallbladder. Controls motility, exocrine and endocrine secretions, and microcirculation of GI tract
Act locally, rapidly destroyed and don't enter the blood. Ex histimine, and prostaglandins
Secreted by endocrine glands into the blood and exerts effects on targets throughout the body
Chemicals released from nerve terminals, diffuse across the synaptic cleft and bind membrane receptors or target cells.
5 keys steps in neurotransmission
Synthesis of neurotransmitter
Storage of neurotransmitter
Release of neurotransmitter
Recognition of neurotransmitter
Metabolism of neurotransmitter
Threshold voltage is reached in the neuron and an action potential is initiated
Depolarization of nerve terminal ending causes influx of CA, which causes the neurotransmitter filled vesicles to fuse with the membrane dumping the contents into the synaptic cleft
Neurotransmitters bind to
Post synaptic ligand gated channel receptors (cause excitatory oh inhibitory postsynaptic potentials) , post synaptic metabotropic receptors (cause second messenger cascades), and presynaptic receptors (Regulate neurotransmitter release).
Neurotransmitter receptors terminated by
degradation of neurotransmitter by enzyme in synaptic cleft, uptake by presynaptic transporters, or intracellular enzymes that deactivate second messengers.
Types of neurotransmitters
Norepinephrine, acetylcholine, dopamine, serotonin, histamine, adenosine, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glycine, and glutamate.
Synthesizes and uses Ache and is called cholinergic interacting with muscarinic and nicotinic receptors
Synthesizes and uses norepinephrine (NE) and is called adrenergic interacting with alpha adrenergic and beta adrenergic receptors.
ANS predominant tone -SYMPATHETIC
Arterioles, veins, and sweat glands