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Flashcards in Neurotransmitters Deck (106)
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1

___ deaths attributed to OD on synthetic opiods (fentynal) other than methadone

19k

2

What are the symptoms of dependence/withdrawal from cannabinoids?

Irritability
Stomach cramping
Chills
Cold sweats

3

Opiod peptides

Neuropeptides
Metabotropic receptors
DEATHS
- 2010 16k
- 2015 53k
- 2016 64k

4

Parkinson's

Loss of neurons in substantia nigra

5

Where do you find cannabinoid receptors?

Widespread throughout brain
Motor system - depresses
Feeding
Pain
Limbic system - mood, emotion
hippocampus - memory

6

neurokinin A

metabotropic receptor - NK2

7

Septal nuclei

Sends axons to cortex and hippocampus

8

Where do you find norepinephrine in the brain

locus coeruleus - brainstem (CNS)
PNS - sympathetics

9

Subtantia nigra

Use dopamine
Project to cornate nucleus and potamin - MOTOR control
Parkinsons

10

Acetylcholine receptors

Nicotinic - ionotropic
Muscarinic - metabotropic (m1-5)

11

Is there abuse potential for cannabinoids?

yes

12

% of US use cannabinoids for non medical use

10%

13

glutamate is an amino acid and is ____

The principle excitatory NT in the CNS

14

locus coeruleus

In brainstem
Projects to limbic system, cortex, spinal cord

15

Cannabinoid receptors

CB1, CB2
Metabotropic
6 protein coupled
Inhibit voltage gated Ca channels and transmitter release

16

How can cannabinoids be used to tx hyperalgesia

Receptors located on PERIPHERAL nerves
Local administration at side of injury/inflammation can decrease hyperalgesia

17

Aspartate is an amino acid that acts as a ______ neurotransmitter

excitatory

18

norepinephrine receptors

metabotropic - alpha, beta

19

Chronic pain can be caused by the loss of neurons that contain which amino acid?

GABA

20

Glutamate (excitatory) has what kind of receptors?

ionotropic
metabotropic

21

GABA has what kind of receptors?

ionotropic
metabotropic

22

Do cannabinoids have reinforcing properties?

yes

23

Function of norepinephrine

Mood - depression
panic
responses to stress

24

Ionotropic glutamate receptors bind...

AMPA
Kainate
NMDA

25

Where do you find serotonin in the brain

raphe nuclei - all over brainstem

26

Which effects of cannabinoids can you develop a tolerance to?

Pain inhibition
Tachycardia
Motor effects

27

ATP has what kind of receptors

Ionotripic
metabotropic

28

Ionotropic ATP receptors

P2X
7 subtypes
Excitatory OR inhibitory

29

What is the total economic burden of prescription opioid abuse in the US per year?

$78.5 billion

30

metabotropic ATP receptors

P2Y
2 subtypes
Excitatory OR inhibitory

31

Biogenic amines

All dervied from AAs
Dopamine
norepinephrine
serotonin
histamine

32

nitric oxide

gas NT
Arginine derived
Manufactured ON DEMAND
Lipid soluble - passes through cell membranes do no need for receptors

33

Function of serotonin

Mood - happy feeling, depression
Feeding behavior
sleep
arousal
modulate pain

34

Where do you find opiod peptides?

Widespread in brain and peripheral tissues
Limbic system
Motor
Pain

35

Name the catecholamines

dopamine
norepinephrine

36

What is the function of neurokinins? (substance P, NKA, NKB)

Anxiety
Pain transmission - chronic pain
Inflammation
Hypersensitivity

37

What are the functions of opiod peptides? (endorphin, enkephalin, dynorphin)

Mood, emotion
pain control
motor control
memory
feeding behavior - constipation

38

How did the opiod crisis start

Late 90s
Pharm companies told Drs that pts would not become addicted
Lead to increase of prescriptions and then addiction

39

Metabotropic glutamate receptors bind...

quisqualate

40

Effect of THC on motor system

Catalepsy - trance/seizure with loss of sensation and conciousness
Ataxia - impaired balance
Immobility

41

neurokinin B

metabotropic receptor - NK3

42

Where do you find neurokinins?

Widespread in brain
NK1+2 in SC
Limbic system
Peripheral nerves

43

Neurohypophyseal hormones

made in hypothalamus - exported to blood
vasopressin
oxytocin

44

Name the 3 kinds of opiod peptides

endorphin
enkephalin
dynorphin

45

Where can dopamine be found in the brain

Substantia nigra
Ventral tegmental area

46

____ people misused prescription opiods

11.4 million

47

Function of histamine in the brain

Arousal
energy metabolism

48

antidepressants ______ norepinephrine

increase

49

Amino acids

Found all over brain and SC

50

Vasopressin

neuropypophyseal hormone
Anti diuretic - decreases water secretions by kidneys
hypothalamus projects into SC - modulates pain

51

GABA is an amino acid that is a ____ neurotransmitter

inhibitory

52

parasympathetic ach receptor localization

decrease HR

53

% people use cannabinoids few times/year

22%

54

Function nitric oxide

interact/activate enzymes
activate second messengers - vasodilation

55

Function of ATP as a NT

promot glial-neuron interactions
Especially during inflammation

56

Medical use of CB1 antagonists

Used to treat obesity by decreasing appetite

57

effect of THC on autonomic function

Hypothermia
Arterial blood pressure
nausea/vomiting

58

____ death attributed to OD heroin

15,000

59

Nucleus basalis

Sends axons to cortex
In basal forebrain

60

Every day, more than ____ people in the US die from opiod overdose

130

61

Neurokinins

Neuropeptides
Metabotropic receptors (G protein coupled, slow transmission)

62

Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH)

Breaks down anandamide (endogenous ligand for cannabinoids = endocannabinoid)
BLOCK FAAH = increase anandamide = reduced pain

63

cognitive/emotional effect of THC

short term memory impairment
euphoria/relaxation
anxiety/stress
altered perception

64

Marinol (dronabinol)

Medical use of cannabinoids
9-THC
Reduce anxiety
reduce inflammation + pain
Control nausea/vomiting from chemo
Kill cancer cells + slow tumor growth
Relax tight muslces - multiple sclerosis
Stimulate appetite/improve weight gain in people with cancer and AIDS

65

glycine is an amino acid and acts as a ____ neurotransmitter

inhibitory

66

Localization of acetylcholine

Periphery - at neuromuscular junction

67

Name the 3 neurokinins

substance P
Nerokinin A
Neurokinin B

68

History of cannabinoids

Used for 4000 years
China
Pain
Malaria
Recreation

69

Alzheimer's

Loss of neurons in nucleus basalis

70

neuroendocrine systems effects of THC

adrenal stimulation
Blocks:
- prolactin
- gonadotropins
- growth hormone
- TSH

71

What are the endogenous ligands of cannabinoids?

Anandamide (AEA) - 1988
2-AB - 1992

72

Functional/behavioral effects of cannabinoids

Stimulate appetite
Decrease pain
Impaired memory
Tachycardia (fast HR) - autonomic NS
Hypothermia
Cognitive: euphora, panic, paranoia

73

Where do you find histamine

hypothalamus
immune cells
periphery - receptors located on nerve fibers which give sensation to ITCH

74

Dopamine receptors

metabotropic (D1-5)

75

Histamine receptors

metabotropic - H1-3

76

enkephalin

opiod peptide
metabotropic receptor - delta

77

Sympathetic ach receptor localization

Increase HR

78

Increasing the levels of endocannabinoids has what effect

decrease pain

79

Raphe nuclei

Use serotonin
project to hippocampus and SC

80

Endorphin

Opiod peptide
Metabotropic receptor - mu

81

schizophrenia

Anti psychotic drugs block dopamine receptors in ventral tegmental area

82

Cannabinoid

Chemical derived from cannibis plant
Have psychoactive effect from THC
9-THC = tetrahydrocannabinol (1964)

83

What are the medical uses of cannabinoids?

Marinol (dronabinol)
CB1 antagonists

84

Oxytocin

Neurohypophyseal hormones
Child brith, milk production
Hypothalamus projects into SC and modulates pain

85

ventral tegmental area

Use dopamine
Limbic system - emotions, mood, reward
Schizo

86

Where is ATP used as a NT

all over brain

87

Substance P

neurokinin
Metabotropic receptor - NK1

Substance P(ain)

88

Cannabinoid analgesia

= inhibition of pain
Inhibit activity of pain signaling neurons
75% decrease in response
Can be blocked by CB receptor antagonists

89

Ionotropic GABA receptors bind...

GABA-a
Alcohol, Benzodiazepine, barbiturates - inhibit receptor

90

Cannabinoids and nociceptors

Nociceptors = pain receptors
Cannabinoids decrease their activity

91

serotonin receptors

metabotropic - 6 subtypes
ionotripic - 1 subtype

92

dynorphin

opiod peptide
metabotropic receptor - kappa
Inhibit voltage gated Ca channels

93

% people have tried cannabinoids once

>50%

94

What are the cannabinoid receptor antagonists?

Synthetic agonists/antagonists
Specific for either receptor CB1 or CB2

95

The abuse and addiction to opiods is a serious national crisis that affects...

public health
social and economic welfare

96

Miniature end plate potentials

Small depolarizing events in a muscle at rest caused by the spontaneous release of acetylcholine from a single vesicle

97

antihyperalgesia + cannabinoids

Hyperalgesia = increased sensitivity to pain
Caused by: inflammation, nerve injury (neuropathic pain), burns, cancer pain

Low doses can be effective in blocking hyperalgesia

98

metabotripic GABA receptors bind

GABA-b
Related to epilepsy

99

____ people died from overdosing on opiods

42,249

100

ATP is a non classical neurotransmitter because

it is not stored in vesicles

101

Name the 8 classifications of NTs

1. acetylcholine
2. amino acids
3. purines
4. biogenic amines
5. hormones
6. neuropeptides
7. gases
8. cannabinoids

102

Sarin gas

Blocks acetylcholinesterase - enzyme that breaks down acetylcholine

Die of asphyxiation

103

Localization of acetylcholine receptors

PNS: Neuromuscular junction (nicotinic)
CNS:
- Nucleus Basalis - memory
- Septal nuclei to hippocampus to limbic system - emotion/mood

104

Nucleus Basalis

Location of acetylcholine receptors in brain
Controls memory
Loss of these neurons = Alzheimers

105

Septal Nuceli

In brain
Location of acetylcholine receptors
Sends axons to HIPPOCAMPUS then to LIMBIC SYSTEM
Emotion/mood

106

Function of norepinephrine

Mood (limbic)
Vasoconstriction (sympathetic)
Motor control (cerebellum)
Pain modulation (SC)