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Flashcards in new born Deck (19):
1

Objectives


Identify the testing position and response of neonatal reflexes
List characteristics of a preterm infant

2

Reflex- obligatory response to stimulus

Neonatal Reflexes

3

-When the reflex is not predictable or the preferred pattern anymore
-these reflexes happens to allow more complex and mature neuromotor patterns to develop.

Integration

4

-Suck-swallow reflex
-Rooting reaction
-Tonic labyrinthine reflex (supine and prone)
-Palmar grasp reflex
-Plantar grasp reflex
-Moro reflex
-Asymmetric Tonic Neck Reflex (ATNR)
-Neonatal Positive Supporting
-Spontaneous Stepping

Neonatal Reflexes

5

-Reflexes dominate early motor activity
-In prone, the infant can turn head side to side
-In supine, the head is typically turned to one side
-In pull-sit, there is a visible head lag
-In supported standing, little weight is accepted

Neonatal Motor Behavior

6

Arousal- Table 3.3, p83
Sleep- REM and NREM

Newborn States and Sensory Function

7

Often present with brain damage or birth trauma
Likely to be behaviorally disorganized
Possible delayed motor, cognitive and language development

REM-NREM disturbances

8

-The neonate can see, process, and react to stimuli.
-Infants see objects at 20 feet the same clarity/acuity that adults see at 600 feet (p87)
-Research has shown no significant reaction to various colors (except for red)

newborns eyesight

9

Can distinguish several basic tastes
Research has shown an infant preference to breast milk

Taste & Smell

10

This sense is well developed at birth

Touch

11

Believed that infants have a natural desire for their mother’s voice and native language

Hearing

12

-Gestational age- common for dating the age of a preterm infant
-born before the 37th week.

The Preterm Infant

13

if a Newborn’s weight is low for the length of the pregnancy they typically have more problems than preterm

Small-for-date

14

-Physiologic immaturity of the lungs
-Physiologic immaturity of the cardiac system
-Immaturity of the gastric system
-Lower muscle tone
-Difficulty with sleep patterns may emerge
-Visual system is more fragile than that of a full term infant

Characteristics of a Preterm Infant

15

Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS)- lack of surfactant

Physiologic immaturity of the lungs

16

Persistent fetal circulation- ductus arteriousus does not close properly

Physiologic immaturity of the cardiac system

17

Gastroesophageal reflux (GER)

Immaturity of the gastric system

18

-Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU)
-Neonates may “graduate” and transition to a step-down unit (NSDU)
-Nurse to infant ratio is low
Unit can resuscitate infants
-Kangaroo Care (p79)
-Music, touch, gentle rocking
All to improve weight gain

Care for the Preterm Infant

19

-The importance of infant-mother contact and bonding has been researched and stressed as important
-Intensive intervention is needed for preterm infants that live in stressed, low-income house-holds.

Social Effects of Preterm Birth